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Reconstruction of migration Zauralye breeders in Europe and Africa

according to archeology, linguistics, and DNA-Genealogy and Historical Ecology
(Single origin and spread of the BBC and R1b in Europe 3 millennium BC)
Main page (on Russian) > Home page (on English) > Communication culture cups and R1b haplogroup

(Full Russian Edition - Русская версия)

GARSHIN Igor K., business analyst, the Caspian Pipeline Consortium, Russia, Novorossiisk. E-mail:

Keywords: Y-DNA R1b haplo-group focus, Bell Beaker Culture incipience, BBC expansion, horse breeding origin, West-European megaliths, ancient ecological crises, Caspian fluctuations, climatic rhytm of old migrations, Eurasian nomads single route.


Article can download as PDF-file [1,3 Mb].

1. Abstracts

This paper compares the expansion of archaeological Bell Beaker Culture (BBC, 5th millennium BC) and the migration of Y-chromosome R1b population in Western Europe (V–III thousand years BC. and earlier), taking into account other related phenomena: the appearance of horse breeding (6th millennium BC), distribution of megalithic tradition (V–II thousand years BC), the divergence of the Dene-Caucasian proto-language (IX–IV thousand years BC). This correlation has satisfactory reliability.

Also we show reveals some little-known sides of historical events, such as Garamants (one of the "Sea Peoples") crossing the Sahara to equatorial Africa in chariots after the "Late Bronze Age Collapse" (1206–1150 BC), referred to in epics "Trojan War". Then it explains the connection between these phenomena and the climate fluctuations in the Eurasian steppes and emerging environmental crises including the catastrophic nature (the eruption of Santorini volcano in the Aegean Sea).

2. Introduction

It is known that the peoples of Western Europe first became acquainted with horse breeding after the spread of the Bell Beaker Culture there, the very first monuments of which were discovered on the Iberian Peninsula in the 3rd millennium BC. Along with the newcomers along the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts and islands, the tradition of building megalithic structures spreads - both astronomical observatories (the most famous is Stonehenge in Britain, begun in 3020-2910 BC), and dolmens, the oldest of which are located in the East Black Sea region (Adygea). Probably, the expansion of the KKK went first by sea from the Eastern Mediterranean to the Western.

At the same time, horse breeding itself originated in the Southern Urals in 7-6 millennia BC. This means that the path of the carriers of horse breeding archaeological cultures to Western Europe lay from there (or from the neighboring territory, for example, the Trans-Ural "Country of cities" with the famous Arkaim) - through the Volga-Ural steppes, and then through the Eastern and / or Western Black Sea region.

An indirect confirmation of such migration can be the lexical convergence established recently between a) the Basque language - probably the original inhabitants of the Iberian Peninsula, b) the original North Caucasian languages, c) the Ket language on the Yenisei, d) the Chinese-Tibetan e) and the languages ​​of the Athapaskan Indians In Canada. The trajectory from the Yenisei through the Caucasus to the Iberian Peninsula almost coincides with the path of the initial spread of horse breeding.

Finally, this hypothesis is being strikingly supported by research in the recently booming molecular genetics (DNA genealogy). According to the reconstruction of the time and place of formation of Y-chromosomal haplogroups and their subclades, it was found that the direction of migration of carriers of the "male" haplogroup R1b (Fig. 1) fully includes the above-mentioned trajectory of the expansion of the KKK. True, after its appearance, this concept was criticized and (presumably, temporarily) lost its former scientific interest. In this article, the facts, reliability of correlations are analyzed once again, and their vision of the reliability of the identification of the carriers of the Bell Beaker Culture and the Y-chromosomal haplogroup R1b is drawn up. In addition, as a result of these comparisons, unknown pages of our ancient history and cultural and historical processes were revealed, the spread of which even covered Equatorial Africa, and various environmental crises both in the Great Steppe and in the Aegeid were the driving reasons.

3. Subject

The following historical processes will be studied and compared:

  1. The origin and distribution of horse breeding.
  2. Origin and spread of the bell goblet culture.
  3. Distribution of megaliths on the coasts of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.
  4. Origin and distribution of haplogroup R1b.
  5. Linguistic and other comparisons.

Then you will need to determine the likely reason for the start of these processes..

4. Comparison of propagation R1b, as well as other phenomena

. В настоящее время она является основной гаплогруппой в Западной Европе (рис. 2). Распространялась она на запад, по одной из версий, следующим путём:

  1. через территории северного Казахстана (пример – ботайская культура, фиксируемая археологами 5700-5100 лет назад, на самом деле намного древнее),
  2. а также средневолжской, самарской, хвалынской (в среднем течении Волги) и древнеямной («курганной») археологических культур и культурно-исторических общностей (это было 8-6 тысяч лет назад и позднее - миграция дала общего предка русских гаплогруппы R1b1, жившего 6775±830 лет назад).
  3. перешла через Кавказ в Анатолию (6000±800 л.н. по датировке гаплотипов современных кавказцев гаплогруппы R1b1b2),
  4. и через Ближний Восток (Ливан, 5300±700 л.н.; древние предки современных евреев, 5150±620 л.н.)
  5. и Северную Африку (берберы гаплогруппы R1b, 3875±670 л.н.) перешла через Гибралтарский пролив
  6. на Пиренейский полуостров (3750±520 л.н., баски 3625±370 л.н.)
  7. и далее на Британские острова (в Ирландии 3800±380 и 3350±360 л.н. по разным популяциям)
  8. и в континентальную Европу (Фландрия, 4150±500 л.н., Швеция 4225±520 л.н.).

Путь в континентальную Европу с Пиренеев – это путь и времена Культуры колоколовидных кубков, принадлежащей, как считается, этническим предкам пракельтов и праиталиков.

Я бы скорректировал первую часть этой версии. Гаплогруппа R1b сформировалась не в Южной Сибири, а на Южном Урале, где была одомашнена лошадь [что и стало причиной и возможностью такой масштабной миграции]. Именно оттуда коневоды - носители этой гаплогруппы - мигрировали 2 потоками на запад (в Причерноморье и на Северный Кавказ) и на восток (через Северный Казахстан в Южную Сибирь) [впрочем, могли и из Ю.Сибири через Ю.Урал, где познакомились с домашней лошадью]. Из Причерноморья тоже было 2 потока миграции - вверх по Дунаю и его притокам на север Западной Европы, и на Иберийский полуостров - возможно, морем (либо как описано - через Переднюю Азию и Северную Африку).

Это были строители мегалитов. А вот откуда они взяли эту традицию? Либо сами создали на Южном Урале или в Южной Сибири (Аркаим), либо переняли или создали на северо-запраде Кавказа (Адыгея). Оттуда эта традиция распространилась по побережью средиземного моря - вероятно, морским путем.

И это были не языковые предки итало-кельтов, а биологические. Миграция самих италиков и кельтов, как и распространение железа, произошло после Троянской войны (в начале I тысячелетия до н.э.), хотя, конечно, на этих территориях могли проживать их более древние родственные племена (как древние греки - осваивали Грецию несколькими волнами). Можно предположить, что народ колоколовидных кубков из Южной Сибири по языку был близок финно-угорским племенам, а, может быть, это были предки этрусков енисейцы (или родственные им предки басков, жившие когда-то на юге Урала или Сибири, чей язык занимает как раз промежуточное положение между енисейскими и северо-кавказскими).

§ 4.5. Распространение некоторых дене-кавказских языков

В середине XX века концепцию "яфетической" кавказско-средиземноморской общности языков выдвигал советский языковед Марр, а в наше время существование дене-кавказской языковой общности доказано Сергеем Старостиным и его учениками. В эту общность входят абхазо-адыгские, чечено-ингушские, дагестанские, китайский с тибето-бирманскими, изолированный кетский (с вымершими другими енисейскими), индейские атапаскские (на-дене) и, по всей видимости, баскский язык, а также, возможно, изолированный буришский в Кашмире. Поэтому можно считать, что путь носителей ККК и их предков лежал через территории этих народов - от енисейцев (которые в древности, возможно, занимали большую территорию в Южной Сибири) к Южному Уралу, Северному Кавказу и - далее морским путем (или через Переднюю Азию и Северную Африку) до Пиренеев.

§ 4.6. Другие сопоставления


5. Biological and cosmic factors of demographic processes

Over the past five, and perhaps more than millennia, in the territory of Eurasia, there has been a tendency for large migrations of the population along the territory of the steppe zone from Mongolia to Western Europe. There were, of course, opposite migrations - both in Europe and in Siberia, but the western direction prevailed. Probably, there is some major factor in the constancy of such demographic movements. Probably, the reason is the periodic ecological crises, causing significant long-term changes in climatic conditions on the territory of the steppes, forest-steppe and other regions of Eurasia, causing drought, the steppe sedimentation and steppe desertification.

For the first time, ecological crises were traced in the 60-70s of the XX century. during excavations of Stone Age sites in the South Urals. It has been observed that primitive fishermen periodically change the height of their settlements. Either they live on 15-20-meter terraces, then they descend into the floodplains and live for a long time in those places that are now flooded by river waters or overflowing lakes. Studies have shown that the heights of settlements changed especially strongly between the 10th - 2nd millennium BC. In the X millennium BC. people lived on low, now mostly flooded terraces. In the 9th - 8th millennia BC. they move 20-25 m above the average water level in rivers and lakes. At the end of the VIII - VII millennium BC. [-6900] again the settlements move to low terraces. The third time this happened in the second half of the 6th and the first half of the 5th millennium BC. [-4900], 4th - at the end of the 4th - beginning of the 3rd millennium BC. [-2900] and the 5th time - approx. 1125-1200 BC [approximately every 2000 years]. At the multilayered settlement of Mullino, which is now located in a flooded floodplain, traces of 4 settlements were discovered, corresponding in time to the resettlement of other sites down. The pollen showed that during those years there were severe droughts, and then these places were flooded for a long time. These observations made it possible to suggest that people were forced to relocate downstream by perennial droughts causing an ecological crisis.

The study of the shores of the Caspian Sea showed that in the years when people moved to those places that are now flooded, the sea level dropped by tens of meters [16, 18]. In the first ecological crisis (X millennium BC) the level of the Caspian Sea fell by 60 m, then rose by 50 m in the VIII millennium BC, again dropped by 30 m in the VI millennium BC .e. The same thing happened in the 3rd, 4th and 5th environmental crises. In the closed water bodies of Africa, during the same periods, there were significant fluctuations in the water level. Environmental crises affected the lives of ancient people, especially when they began to engage in agriculture. In the period between ecological crises, the rise in water level was perceived by ancient people as floods.

Let's compare the periods of droughts and regressions of the Caspian with the demographic processes in Eurasia (in the depths of the centuries):

  1. XIV - Abeskun regression (~ III - XVIII centuries AD): the era of conquest campaigns of the Huns, Avars, Turks, Mongols, Kalmyks.
  2. XII - Alexanderbai regression (~ II - III centuries BC): ?
  3. XI - Turalin period with 2 regressions: a) approximately in the VIII century. BC, marked by the invasion of the Cimmerians and then the Scythians; b) and in the XIII centuries. BC, when there was a demographic catastrophe of the Bronze Age, called the Trojan War in the epic, and referred to in historical documents as the invasion of the "peoples of the sea." Before that, starting from the 17th century. BC, there was a chain of eruptions of the Santorini volcano on the island of Fera in the Aegean Sea, the most catastrophic of which led to the death of the Cretan sea power. It is possible that the rise in sea level somehow influenced the activation of volcanism.
  4. X - Makhachkala (Izberbash) period, which included 3 regressions: a) b) c)
  5. VIII - Zilandine regression (~ 4500-5000 BC):
  6. VI - Mangyshlak (Kulala) regression (~ 6500 - 7000 BC):

6. Conclusion

As a result of the conducted research it is established:

  1. The population of people with the Y-chromosomal haplogroup R1b and the precursor of the culture of the bell cups originated from one area in South Siberia.
  2. They were settled in common ways, but at different times (R1b was earlier for 2000 years).
  3. The territory of their distribution coincides with the zones of construction of megaliths.
  4. The path of divergence of the Dene-Caucasian peoples is on the same trajectory.
  5. Outbursts of migrations of the pastoral population are associated with periodic droughts.
  6. This periodicity is reflected in large (100 thousand years) and small (2 thousand years) fluctuations in the level of the Caspian Sea, depending on the global rhythms of moisture.
  7. The reason for these fluctuations in moisture is the astronomical rhythms.

Based on this, it can be assumed that the population R1b, having originated in South Siberia, migrated to the Volga region, then passed through the Caucasus to Front Asia, and through North Africa to the Pyrenees (about 4500 BC), settling in Western Europe. They were builders of the megaliths, the tradition of which was adopted in the Middle East or brought from the Urals. Later horse breeding spread in Europe on this path. This baton was passed from the Trans-Ural cultures to the Volga cultures, then to the Kurgan Indo-European ones. This was the origin of the BBC, probably on the Lower Danube, from where it spread to the islands of the Western Mediterranean, the Pyrenees, along the Eastern Atlantic coast and archipelagoes, and then in Central Europe. A part of the BBC tribes left the "Avar path" up the Danube, where they then met the first wave from the Pyrenees.

Migration impulses arose on the continent during periods of droughts and "pushed" through the same paths the next populations, under the pressure of which previously departed tribes were again removed from their seats. Therefore, the appearance, disappearance and beginning of the movement of archaeological cultures correlate with sharp climatic changes, which is well documented by fluctuations in the levels of inland water bodies. Since variations in climate (under the influence of periodic cosmic factors) occur rhythmically, the migrations also occur periodically, and often spread already traversed paths. Therefore, we can see their recurrence from the millennium to the millennium, as the examined population migrations of the Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b, megalithic cultures and the culture of the bell cups.

During this exploration it was also revealed the correlation of minima in the rhythms of moistening and volcanic super-eruptions.

7. Literature

  1. Astronomy: Centery XXI. / Editor Surdin /v.G. – Friazino: "Vek 20", 2008. – 608 p.
  2. Appolov B.A. Collection Questions od Geography, в„– 24, 1951.
  3. Hays J. D., J. Imbrie, and N. Shackleton Variation in the Earth’s orbit: Pacemaker of the ice ages // Science. – 1976. – V. 194. – P. 1121–1132.
  4. J. Jouzel, etc. Orbital and millennial Antarctic climate variability over the past 800,000 years // Science. 2007. V. 317. P. 793-796.

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Keywords for seeking about Beaker Culture and R1b haplo-group:
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