Версия для печати

Глобально реконструированные корни протоязыка человечества

Главная > Лингвистика > Историческое языкознание > Протокорни

Этимологические словари праязыков: А | Б | В | Г | Д | Е | Ж | З | И | К | Л | М | Н | О | П | С | Т | У | Ф | Х | Ц | Ч | Э | Ю | Я
Руины Вавилонской башни - от единства Языка к множеству языков

Здесь приводится этимологический список корней прото-языка на основе глобального сравнения лексем реконструированных праязыков мира:

1 AJA ‘mother, older female relative’
Khoisan: =Au.//eˆ ı ai ‘female, mother,’ !Kung ÷ai ‘mother’; Naron ai, Hadza aija ∼ aijako ‘mother, grandmother, aunt’; /’Auni aija ‘mother.’ [BD 6]
Niger-Congo: Temne -ja ‘mother,’ Bulom ja, Yoruba ija; Bantu: ProtoBantu *j´ıj` a ∼ *j´ıj` o. [BA IV: 190] Nilo-Saharan: Saharan: Daza aja ‘mother,’ Kanembu jia ∼ ja, Kanuri ja; Fur ija; Maban: Runga ja; Koman: Gumuz ijo; Central Sudanic: Mangbetu aja, Madi ia, Lombi jaija; East Sudanic: Gulfan aja, Midob ija, Suk iju, Nyangiya joijao ‘thy mother.’ [NS 95, CN 67, ES 77, NSD 43]
Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: Wolamo aj¯ e ‘mother’; Cushitic: Oromo ajo, Somali hoojo; Chadic: Kotoko¯ıja ∼ ija ∼ ja, Mubi´ıj` a.[WM 64]
Dravidian: Tamil ¯ aj ∼ ˜aji ∼ jaj ‘mother,’ ¯aj¯ al . ‘mother, grandmother,’ Kannada ¯aji ‘mother,’ Kolami aj, Parji ajal ‘woman, wife,’ ija ‘mother,’ Gadba aja ‘mother,’ ajal ‘woman, wife,’ Gondi ajal ‘mother,’ Konda aja, Pengo aja∼ija, Manda aja, Kui aia∼aja∼ija, Kuwi¯ıja ‘mother,’ aja‘woman,’ Kurux ajaÑg ∼ ajo ‘mother,’ Malto a¯ja ‘my mother.’ [D 364, NSD 43]
Burushaski -äi ‘daughter, girl.’ [B 455]
?Indo-Pacific: Isabi aijo ‘mother,’ Korafe aja. [FS 99]
Nahali aji ‘husband’s younger sister.’ [NA 59] Austroasiatic: Munda: Sora ajaÑ-tsòr ‘bitch’ (= female-dog, cf. kin-tsòr ‘male dog’);
Mon-Khmer: Proto-Mon-Khmer *ja÷ ‘grandmother.’ [PB 482, SB 34]
Miao-Yao: Proto-Yao *ja ‘father’s sister.’ [PB 339]
Daic: Tai: Proto-Tai *ja ‘father’s mother’; Sek ja; Kam-Sui: Proto-KamSui *ja ‘grandmother,’ Sui ja ‘grandmother, old woman’; Li: Proto-Li *ja ‘mother, grandmother,’ Small Cloth Loi ja ‘mother’; Lakkia jë ‘grandmother.’ [PB 339]
Austronesian: Proto-Austronesian *‘ajah ‘father,’ Atayal jaja÷ ‘mother,’ Pazeh jah ‘older sister,’ Malay ’ajah ‘father,’ Javanese (j)ajah ‘father.’ [AN 13, WW 74, PB 339]
Amerind: Penutian: North Sahaptin ´ajaD ‘woman,’ Nez Perce ÷ajat, Tzotzil jaja ‘grandmother’; Hokan: Washo -ja ‘paternal aunt,’ Quinigua ÷jaak, Tonkawa ÷ejan ‘woman’s sister’; Central Amerind: Tewa jia ‘mother,’ Proto-Oto-Manguean *ja ‘female,’ Proto-Uto-Aztecan *je ‘mother,’ Tarahumaraije, Yaqui÷aije, Nahua-je÷; Chibchan-Paezan: Xincaaja‘woman,’ Matagalpa joaja, Cuna jaa-kwa ‘young woman,’ Colorado aja ‘mother’; Andean: Ona joj ‘grandmother,’ Auca -j˜æj˜ æ; Macro-Tucanoan: Amaguaje ajo ‘old woman,’ Masaka jaja ‘older sister,’ Ticuna jake ‘old woman’; Equatorial: Mapidianaaja‘aunt,’ Toraije ‘paternalgrandmother,’ Arikem haja ‘aunt’; Macro-Panoan: Mayoruna jaja, Shipibo jaja ‘paternal aunt,’ Moseten eje ‘grandmother,’ jaja ‘mother-in-law’; Macro-Carib: Accawai aja ‘mother’; Macro-Ge: Coropo ajan, Coroado ajan, Palmas j˜ a. [CA 55, AMN]
2 BU(N)KA ‘knee, to bend’
Niger-Congo: Baga -buÑ ‘knee,’ Pajade -paÑ, ?Lefana -Ñko; Bantu: ProtoBantu *b´ oÑg´ o, Swahili bong’oa ‘to stoop, bend down.’ [BA III: 57] Kordofanian: Tegele mbo ‘knee’ (pl. abo .an ∼ abuaÑ). [VB]
Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: Dime boq ‘knee,’ Bako boγa, Basketo buk .a, Oyde bunk .e; Chadic: Fyer fuÑ ‘knee,’ Bura b .unji ‘knee.’ [VB]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *bheug(h) ‘to bend’; Indic: Sanskrit bhugn´ a ‘bent’; Germanic: Gothic biugan ‘to bend,’ Old Icelandic bogenn ‘bent,’ English bow, elbow; Celtic: Proto-Celtic *buggo ‘flexible, malleable,’ Irish bog ‘soft’; Albanian but¨ e (< bhug(h)-to) ‘soft’; Baltic: Latvian ba˜ugurs ‘hill, rising ground.’ [IE 152, N 25]
Turkic: Proto-Turkic *b¨uk(¨ a) ∼ *b¨ok(¨ a) ‘to bend,’ Chuvash p˘ek ∼ p˘ ¨ ok ‘to bend,’ Yakut b¨ uk, Khakas b¨ukri ‘bent,’ Old Uighur b¨ uk ∼ b¨ok ‘to twist,’Uighur b¨ uk ∼ b¨ok ‘to kneel.’ [N 25 ] Mongolian: Proto-Mongolian *b¨oke ‘to bend,’ Written Mongolian b¨okeji ∼ b¨ok¨oji ‘to cave in, sag’ b¨oken ‘hump of a camel,’ b¨ok¨ot¨ ur ‘bent,’ Khalkha b˙ox(˙on) ‘hump of a camel,’ Kalmyk b¨okn‹ ‘hump, humped.’ [N 25 ] Tungus: Proto-Tungus *b¨ok(¨ a) ‘to bend,’ Manchu buk(-da), Nanai bukun ‘hump,’ Evenki buk¨ a ‘to bow,’ buku ‘bent, crooked,’ b¨ak¨ a ‘hump.’ [N 25 ]
Ainu he-poki-ki ‘bow down,’ he-poki-poki ‘to nod the head.’
Indo-Pacific: Halmahera: Tobelo buku ‘knee,’ Modole bubuqu, Lodawuwuku; Bougainville: Koianu poku; South New Guinea: Teri Kawalsch bugu; Northeast New Guinea: Saker bakbakan.[IP 43]
Australian: Proto-Australian *puÑku ‘knee,’ Tyeraity b¨ oÑg¨ ol, Maranunggu biÑgar, Guugu Yimidhir buÑgu, Kok-Nar poÑk ∼ p´ uÑkuw´ al, Gugu-Badhun buÑguyal, Kukatj poÑkìpal, Dyirbal buÑgu ‘knee, bend in the river, wave,’ Yidiny buÑgu ‘knee, hump in a snake’s body.’ [NP 232, RD 110, 123, 223]
Amerind: Proto-Algonquian: *w¯ak- ‘bend,’ Blackfoot woxos ‘shin’ (from an earlier meaning of ‘knee,’ as seen in Maidu pok’´osi), Bella Bella wak‘bent,’ Crow iˇsbaxe ‘elbow,’ Hidatsa iˇspah .i ‘elbow,’ Caddo buko ‘knee’; Penutian: Tfalatik pòsq ‘bow’ (with metathesis, from earlier *pòqVs), Kalapuya oposqú ‘bow’ (with metathesis), Maidu pok’´osi ‘knee,’ Nisenan p’ëkkasi ‘elbow,’ Zuni po÷ku ‘to fold,’ Texistepec boka ‘elbow,’ Pokonchi bak ‘crooked,’ Sierra Popoluca pikˇ si ‘bow,’ Mixe kupokˇ s ‘elbow’; Hokan: Shasta ÷iˇcipka ‘knee,’ Achomawi lupu÷isi ‘bow,’ Chumash sibuk ∼ ˇsipuk ‘elbow,’ Walapai mipuk ‘knee,’ ph´ u÷ ‘bow’; Central Amerind: Varohia ˇ copokori ‘knee’; Chibchan-Paezan: Guamaca buka ‘knee, elbow,’ Rama buk ‘twist,’ Atanque buk¨uh-k¨ona ‘knee,’ Warrao oboka ‘elbow,’ Colorado te-bunga ‘elbow,’ Cayapa ne-bumbuka ‘knee,’ Chimu ˇc’epuk; Andean: Jebero p¨oktenja ‘bow,’ Ona epekten ‘elbow,’ Alakaluf kolpakar ‘knee’; Macro-Tucanoan: Iranshe poku ‘bow (n.),’ Proto-Nambikwara *pako ‘crooked,’ *pok ‘bow(n.)’; Equatorial: Paumari amabokoi ‘elbow,’ Guara˜ noca pok` a ‘bow,’ Cuiva tab´oko ‘knee,’ Palicur ubowγi, Karif bugunuge ‘elbow’; Macro-Carib: Miranha th¨uboqua ‘bow,’ Apiaca topkat; Macro-Panoan: Mayoruna mupukuˇsau ‘elbow,’ Panobo wa÷puˇsko ‘elbow’ (with metathesis), Sapiboca embako ‘elbow,’ Tiatinagua waku; Macro-Ge: Mohaˇcobm pokai ‘bow,’ Umotina boika, Bororo boiga, Opaie ˇci-ˇpege-ri ‘elbow.’ [AM 157, MT 16, AMN]
3 BUR ‘ashes, dust’
Nilo-Saharan: Songhai:Gaobonni ‘ashes,’ Djerma boron; Berta bub(u)÷da; Central Sudanic: Bongo buru-ku, Keliko òfòrago; East Sudanic: Kenzi, Birgid u-burti, Murle b¯ur, Mursi búrr, Bal´ e búr, Shilluk, Bor bur, Lango buru, Alur burru. [NS 9, CN 7, ES 5, NSD 6, NSB]
Afro-Asiatic: Proto-Afro-Asiatic *b(w)rH ‘loose soil, sand, dust’; Semitic: Proto-Semitic *br ‘dust,’ Arabic baraj ‘dust, soil,’ Mehri ber¯ or ‘sandy seashore,’ Classical Hebrew bar ‘field, open space,’ Proto-Semitic *bwr ‘(fallow) ground,’ Arabic bawr ‘fallow ground,’ Syriac b¯ur¯ o, Akkadian b¯aru ‘open space’; ?Berber: Shilha tamurt ‘soil’; Cushitic: Beja b¯ ur ‘soil,’ Bilin bir¯ a ‘soil,’ Saho bar .o, Afar bal .¯ o, Somali bèrri; Chadic: Proto-Chadic *’bwr ‘sand,’ Angas ’bur ‘sand, dust,’ Logone b´ ¯ ur´ a, Gider burduku ‘soil.’ [CS 398, N 22]
Kartvelian: Svan burγw ‘to raise dust,’ birγw (< *burγw-i) ‘dust, ashes,’ ?Middle Georgian bre. [N 22 ]
Uralic: Proto-Uralic (Illich-Svitych) *porV ‘dust, sand, dirt’; Samoyed: Kamassian p¨ure ‘sand’; Ugric: Ostyak per ‘ashes’; Finnic: Finnish poro ‘hot ashes, course dust,’ Estonian pori ‘mud,’ Mansi pors ‘sweepings.’ [U 68, N 22 ]
Dravidian: Proto-Dravidian *p¯ ur£ V ∼ *por£ V ‘loose soil, sand, dust,’ Malto porsi ‘sweepings,’ Naikri bur .di ‘ash,’ Telugu b¯ud .ida ‘ashes,’ Tulu poyy` e ‘sand,’ Malayalam pur£uti ‘dust, earth,’ p¯uyi ‘sand,’ Tamil pur£uti ‘dust, dry earth,’ p¯ ur£ i ‘powder, dust.’ [D 4316, N 22, NSD 6]
Turkic: Proto-Turkic *b¯or, Chuvash pur(˘ a) ‘chalk,’ Tuva por ‘clay,’ Jakut buor ‘soil, clay, dust,’ Altai pur ‘ashes,’ Uighur bor, Kazakh bor ‘chalk.’ [N 22 ] Mongolian: Khalkha bur ‘dirty, muddy, dark,’ Buriat bur ‘silt, swamp, clay.’ [N 22 ] Tungus: Manchu buraki ‘dust, sand,’ Nanai bur¨axin ‘dust,’ Oroch bur¨axi. [N 22 ]
?Eskimo-Aleut: Proto-Eskimo-Aleut *pujV∼*apju ‘dust, mud, soot.’ [EA]
Burushaski bur-di ‘the ground.’ ?
Indo-Pacific: Tasmanian b¯urana ‘smoke.’
Australian: Proto-Australian *burin ∼ *burinj ‘smoke.’ [AC 75]
Amerind: Chibchan-Paezan: Cuna piru ‘ashes,’ Uncasica bura, Manare okabora, Move ˜nio-bru, Guatuso purun, Catio pora ‘dust’; Andean: Lupaca purka ‘ashes’; Equatorial: Shuara pupuur ‘dust,’ Bare baridi ‘ashes,’ Wapishana parati, Goajiro purpura ‘dust’; Macro-Panoan: Taruma gulaparu ‘powder’; Macro-Carib: Yagua pup¯andru ‘ashes’; Macro-Ge: ProtoGe *prë ‘ashes,’ Krenje pro, Cayapo pra ‘embers,’ Guato (ma-)fora(-ta) ‘ashes,’ Caraja br¯ıbi. [AM 11, AMN]
4 ˇCUN(G)A ‘nose; to smell’
Khoisan: =Au.//eˆ ı ˇc’˜ u ‘nose,’ !Kung ts ’´ ˜ u ∼ s´ ˜ u, !O-!Kung tsn ∼ ˇcn; G//abake ˇ cui, Naron s˜ o ‘to snuff,’ Nama suni ‘sniff, smell from’; /Xam s˜ u ‘snore,’ //Ng-!’e s˜ u÷wa ‘blow the nose,’ Kakia /nuha ˇcuni ‘nostrils.’ [K 89, SAK 488, 489, HF 1:10]
Nilo-Saharan: Saharan: Zagawa sina ‘nose,’ Berti sano; East Sudanic: Meidob i-siÑi ‘nose,’ Ongamo (a-ta-)síÑa ‘to sneeze,’ Ik sik’wa ‘to sneeze’; Central Sudanic: Shabo ˇcona ∼ ˇsona ‘nose.’ [NSB, KER, HF 12]
Afro-Asiatic: Proto-Afro-Asiatic *t ¯ (w)n ∼ *t ¯ (j)n ‘smell; Ancient Egyptian ´ sn ‘to smell,’ ´sn´sn ‘to breathe’; Omotic: Proto-Omotic *sin-t ‘nose,’ Basketo sinc .a, Chara sind .¯ a, Gimira sint, Mao ˇsinto; Cushitic: Burgi suna, Konso sona, Tambaro sana, Somali san, Kaffaˇcinno ‘odor,’ Saho s¯ın ‘to smell’; Chadic: Hausa s´uns`un¯ a ∼ s´ans`an¯ a ‘to smell,’ Bachama ˇsine, Bata ˇ cinne, Klesem siÑ, Bana ˇcinan, Dari ˇsin. [AA 54, N 51, HF 1:10]
Kartvelian: Georgian sun ‘odor, to smell.’ [N 51 ]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *sn¯ a ‘to flow, dampness, nose’; Germanic: Proto-Germanic *snu ‘to smell, nose,’ Swedish snus ‘snuff,’ snuva ‘runny nose,’ German snau ‘snout, beak,’ Old Icelandic snoppe ‘to snuff,’ Norwegian sn¯ ut ‘nose,’ English ‘snout, sniff’; Baltic: Lithuanian snukkis ‘snout.’ [IE 971]
Uralic: Proto-Uralic (Illich-Svitych) *ˇc¨ uÑV ‘to smell, odor, smoke,’ (R´edei) *´saÑk‰ ‘smell, taste’; Samoyed: Nenets t¨u´n¯e∼ti´n¯e ‘to smell’; Ugric: Vogul seeÑkw ‘mist, vapor’; Finnic: Votyak ˇcyÑ ∼ ˇsyÑ ‘smoke,’ Zyrian ˇ cyn ‘smoke,’ ?Finnish henki ‘breath, spirit.’ [U 97, N 51, KR 462]
Dravidian: Tamil cun .t .u ‘bill, beak,’ Malayalam cun .t .u ‘beak, lips, snout,’ Kannada cun .d .u ‘a bird’s beak,’ Parji cond . ‘mouth, beak,’ Pengo cond .i ‘beak of a bird,’ Kui sud .a ‘mouth, beak,’ Kuwi hond .i ‘mouth.’ [D 2664]
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian *sHwi ¯ Int’ ‘to smell, snot,’ Proto-Avar-Andi *¯ swint’V ‘to smell, snuff,’ Avar ¯sunt’ ‘snuff,’ sunt’(-ize) ‘to smell,’ Dargi sunt’ ‘scent, odor,’ Lak¯sunt’ ‘snuff,’ Proto-Lezghian*¯ swiInt’ ‘snot,’ Tsaxur suInt’ ‘snot,’ ?Hurrian sunA ‘breath, soul.’ [HF 1:10, C 190]
Basque su-dur ‘nose,’ sun-da ‘smell.’
Burushaski ˇ s .¯ uÑ (ètäs) ∼ ˇ s¯ ˜ u( ètäs) ‘to smell.’ [B 335]
Sino-Tibetan: Karen suÑ ‘odor’; Tibeto-Burman: Proto-Tibeto-Burman *sVna ‘nose,’ *suÑ ‘smell,’ Tibetan sna, bsuÑ ‘smell (sweet),’ Nung sëna, Janggali sina, Digaro hëna(-gam), Burmese hna, s` aÑ ‘emit a pleasant odor.’ [ST 101, 405, HF 1:10]
Na-Dene: Haida s´anjuu ‘smell,’ s¯ınaÑ ‘sniffling’; Tlingit ˇ cán ‘stench’; Eyak ˇ c˜ ah ∼ ˇ c˜ a÷ ‘stink’; Athabaskan: Proto-Athabaskan *-ˇcin-¬ ‘nose,’ Galice ˇ san ∼ ˇ s˜ a˜ a ‘smell,’ Kato ˇ cën ‘smell.’ [ND]
Indo-Pacific: Baruya sìnna ‘nose,’ Musak sinami- ‘to smell.’ [FS 105]
Nahali ˇ c¯ on ‘nose.’ [NA]
Miao-Yao: Miao tsinyu ‘nose,’ Yao (pu-)tsoN. [HF 1:10] Daic: Ong Be zoÑ ‘nose,’ suÑ (mu) ‘to blow the nose’ (= to-blow [nosemucus]). [PB 345]
Austronesian: Proto-Austronesian *iˇguÑ ∼ *uˇguÑ ‘nose,’ Kuvalan uˇguÑ, Proto-Philippine *suÑaD, Proto-Oceanic *isu(Ñ)∼*untsu(Ñ), Fijian utsu, Proto-Polynesian *isu; Proto-Austronesian *tuÑal . ∼ *suNar ‘to sneer,turn up the nose.’ [ AN 67, 158; WW 139, 227; PB 345]
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan: Seneca ÷os¯ ˜ en˜ o÷ ‘smell,’ Chiwere s˜ ıÑe, Tutelo s˜ uw ‘stink’; Penutian: Wintu sono ‘nose,’ Chukchansi sinik’, Gashowu s¯ınwiyi ‘to blow the nose,’ Yokuts s .¯ enit .’ ‘smell,’ Yaudanchi senk’a ‘smell,’ Huave ˇsink ‘nose,’ Santa Cruz suunta ‘snot,’ Lake Miwok s .in- ‘blow the nose,’ Central Sierra Miwok s¯ eÑ-aH ‘smelly thing’; Central Amerind: Tewa s˜ u ‘smell,’ Kiowa s˜ e, Proto-Central Otomi *ˇsi˜n˜ u ‘nose,’ South Pame ˇ sinyˆ u; Chibchan-Paezan: Atanque sun-k¨ona ‘beak,’ Binticua misun-a ‘nose,’ Move inson, Colorado sin, Timicua ˇcini; Andean: Sek ˇcuna, Leco (bi-)ˇcinua, Proto-Quechuan *sinqa; Macro-Tucanoan: Ubde-Nehern ˇcinuehei ‘smell,’ Yuri ˇcunama; Equatorial: Campa asanki-ro, Callahuaya ˇcini ‘nose,’ Caranga ˇconanˇ ga ‘stink.’ [AK 175, CP 133, A 79, 106, AMN]
5 KAMA ‘hold (in the hand)’
Khoisan: Zhu xo ’m(-x´ei) ‘rub back and forth’; Kxoe xˆom ‘crush with the hands.’ [SAK 852]
Niger-Congo: Dagomba kam ‘squeeze,’ Nupe k˜ a, Proto-Bantu *kama, Swahili kama ‘to squeeze, to milk,’ kama-ta ‘to take hold, seize, grasp.’ [KS 59, BA III: 263]
?Nilo-Saharan: Songhai kaÑkam ‘squeeze’ (< *kamkam ?). [KS 59]
Afro-Asiatic: Proto-Afro-Asiatic *km ‘seize, take, squeeze’; Semitic: Akkadian kam¯ u ‘to capture,’ Arabic kamaˇ sa ‘seize, grasp’; Cushitic: Dahalo kam ‘to hold,’ Kwadza komos ‘to grip,’ Iraqw kom ‘to have’; Berber: Tuareg ekmem ‘squeeze’; Chadic: Hausa k¯ama ‘to catch,’ Musgu kaw ‘seize,’ Gidar gëma ‘to take,’ Masa ˇcum. [AA 63, N 157, AB 160]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *gem ∼ *gem¯ o ‘to grasp with both hands, seize’; Armenian ˇcmlem ‘I squeeze’; Greek geuto ‘he took’ (< *gem-to); Celtic: Old Irish gemel ‘fetters’; Germanic: Old Swedish kumla ‘to crumple’; Baltic: Latvian g`umstu ‘to seize, grasp’; Slavic: Old Church Slavic ˇ z˘ımoª ‘I press, squeeze.’ [IE 368, N 157, AB 171]
Uralic: Proto-Uralic (Illich-Svitych) *kama-lV ∼ *koma-rV ‘handful,’ (R´edei) *kom‰(r‰) ‘palm of the hand,’ (R´edei) *k¨ame(-ne); Samoyed: Yenisei Samoyed hammara ‘hand’; Finnic: Finnish kamahlo ∼ kahmalo ‘doublehandful,’ Estoniankamal ‘handful,’ Mordvinkomoro, Saami goabmer ‘double handful.’ [U 42, N 157, KR 137, 175]
Dravidian: Proto-Dravidian *kamV ‘to seize, take, hold,’ Koraga kamd .i ‘to steal,’ Telugu kamucu ‘to hold, seize,’ Malto kam ‘to gather (by oneself).’ [D 1326, N 157] Turkic:
Proto-Turkic *kam-a∼*qam-a ‘to take, seize,’ Old Uighur qama ‘to take prisoner, surround,’ Kirghiz kama ‘to surround, arrest,’ Tatar kama ‘to herd cattle into a pen,’ Nogai kam-ty ‘to seize.’ [N 157] Mongolian: Written Mongolian qamu ‘to gather, pick up,’ Khalkha xam˘ a ‘to gather, pick up.’ [N 157] Tungus: Proto-Tungus *kama ∼ *kamu ‘to press, oppress, forbid,’ Nanai kama-le ‘to press, clasp,’ Olcha kama-lu ‘to forbid,’ kama-lˇgu ‘to press,’ Orok kamu-i ‘to take in one’s arms, seize,’ Evenki kama ‘deny assistance to, oppress.’ [N 157]
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian *k’¯emV ‘armful, handful,’ Proto-Lak *k’ama ‘handful,’ Proto-Lezghian *k’em(a) ‘armful.’ [C 124] ?
Indo-Pacific: North New Guinea: Arapesh kum ‘to steal,’ Bosngun kamba ‘to steal,’ Siaute kupi ‘to take.’ [NNG 45]
Miao-Yao: Proto-Miao-Yao *Ñgam ‘to crush, squeeze’ (< *kamgam), Haininh Yao gam ‘to crush or squeeze with the hand.’ [PB 315]
Daic: Tai: Proto-Tai *hÑam ‘to lay hold of, grasp’ (< *kamgam), *kum ‘hold with the hand’; Kam-Sui: Sui ÷´nam ‘to hold,’ Mak ´nam ‘to clench the fist, take hold of’ (< *÷Ñam < *kamgam); Li: Proto-Li *këm ‘to press with the hand, squeeze,’ Southern Li kom (luoi) ‘to squeeze’ (= press [down] ); Ong-Be kom ‘to press down.’ [PB 315]
Austronesian: Proto-Austronesian *kem ‘enclose, cover, grasp,’ *gemgem ‘hold, grasp in the fist, make a fist,’ Rukai (wa-)gëmgëm ‘to squeeze in the hand.’ [AN 54, 74, 78; WW 103; PB 315-16]
6 KANO ‘arm’
Khoisan: /Xam //k˜ u ‘arm,’ /Nu-//en //kan ‘branch’; Naron //k’˜ o˜ a ‘arm,’ Nama //˜oa(-b); !Kung //k˜a˜ u ‘branch,’ ?=h˜ a ∼=h¯ a ‘arm.’ [SAK 130, 186]
Niger-Congo: Yingulum kën´ ı ‘arm,’ Fali kän; Bantu: Proto-Bantu *k´on` o ‘(fore)arm,’ Nyali (i-)k´on(-do) ‘hand,’ Swahili (m-)kono ‘arm, forearm, hand, front paw.’ [BA 297, AT 11] Nilo-Saharan: Kunama k`o’n` a ‘hand,’ u-kun-kula ‘armpit, elbow’ (= armhole), Ilit kon ‘hand,’ Berta k’oÑ-k’oloÑ ∼ kwòn-kwòlòÑ ‘elbow,’ Teso (´ a-)k`an` ı ‘hand,’ Masai (eÑ-)k´ a´ın´ a ‘hand.’ [CN 5, AT 79, NSB] ?
Afro-Asiatic: Chadic: Proto-West Chadic *h .A-ganA ‘arm, shoulder,’ Angas gwon ‘shoulder,’ Bokkos kˆ oÑ ‘arm,’ Sha ˜gaan; Cushitic: Iraqw kun(-day) ‘foot.’ [AT 86, OS 683]
?Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *kon-t- ∼ *kn-t- ‘10,’ Germanic: Proto-Germanic *handu(-z) ‘hand,’ English hand.
Uralic: Proto-Uralic (R´edei) *kon‰∼ *kon‰-ala ‘armpit’; Yukaghir kun(-el) ‘10,’ xanba ‘hand’; Ugric: Hungarian h´on ∼ h´on(-alj) ‘armpit’ (-alj ‘that which is beneath’), Vogul kan(-l) ‘armpit’; Finnic: Finnish kain (-alo), Votyak kun(-ul), Zyrian kon(-uvt), (-uvt ‘that which is beneath’). [U 101, KR 178]
Dravidian: Tulu kaÑkul .a ‘armpit’ (= arm-hole), Kannada kaÑkur£∼gaÑkëlu‘armpit,’ Kota ganjguly. [D 1234, N 220]
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian*GHwì ¯ n¯ A ‘arm, shoulder,’ Proto-Lezghian*¯q¨un ‘shoulder,’ Krytz qun¨ a, Archi qIun. [C 156]
Yeniseian: Proto-Yeniseian *ken ‘shoulder.’ [Y 28 ]
Sino-Tibetan: Ancient Chinese *k¯en ‘shoulder’; Proto-Tibeto-Burman *kan ‘arm.’ [Y 28, TB 438]
Na-Dene: Proto-Eyak-Athabaskan *g` ¯ an ‘arm,’ Tanana gan, Tlatskanai okane, Ingalik g`an, Galice gaane÷ ‘arm, branch,’ Navajo gaan ‘arm.’ [SN, ND]
Indo-Pacific: Tasmanian: Southeastern gouna ∼ guna ∼ gouana ∼ wana ‘arm, hand,’ Parawen konènè ‘arm,’ Jilim kanan ‘left (arm),’ Dumpu ki˜ nèn ‘shoulder,’ Gapun akan ‘arm.’ [T 83, FS 107, IP 820]
?Nahali khand .a ‘shoulder,’ akhand .i ‘finger.’ [NA 59, 85; Kuiper believes khand .a is probably a borrowing from Kurku.]
?Austroasiatic: Vietnamese c´anh ∼ c`anh ‘arm, branch, wing.’
Daic: Tai: Proto-Tai *xeen ‘arm,’ Dioi kien ‘arm, sleeve,’ Sek keen; KamSui: Sui ´chin, Then khyin ‘sleeve’; Ong-Be kan (mo) ‘forearm,’ gen (mo) ‘upper arm.’ [PB 379]
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan: Blackfoot kin(-ists) ‘hand,’ Kutenai kin, Kalispel a¯ xën ‘arm,’ Okanagan -aqan, Kwakwala -xaina ‘shoulder’; Penutian: Tunica hkeni ‘hand,’ Chitimacha ÷okun ‘shoulder,’ Sayula konik ‘carry on the shoulder’; Central Amerind: Chichimec kan’a ‘hand,’ Otomi x´ı’ny´ ı ‘shoulder’; Chibchan-Paezan: Murire kana ‘arm,’ Bintucua guna ‘arm, hand,’ Guamaca guna ‘arm,’ Atanque guna ‘hand,’ Chimu aken ‘arm’; Andean: Ona haken ‘arm,’ Tehuelche aken ‘shoulder blade,’ Simacu kan´uxua‘shoulder,’ Selknamk’ojjn; Macro-Tucanoan:S¨ar¨ a axkono ‘shoulder,’ Uaiana akono ‘shoulder, armpit,’ Omoa naxkono ‘shoulder’; Equatorial: Piro kano ‘arm,’ Parecis -kano-, Canamari kano ‘shoulder,’ Timote -ki˜nem ‘hand,’ Mocochi ki˜nien, Tinigua kwana, Trumai kanap; MacroCarib: Miranya gano-aga ‘hand,’ gano-m´uhtee ‘armpit,’ Coeruna kunia ‘hand’; Macro-Panoan: Proto-Panoan *m¨ı-k¨ın¨ ı ‘hand,’ Lengua kanyama ‘armpit’; Macro-Ge: Bororo kana ‘upper arm,’ Camican guang¨ani ‘arm,’ Botocudo kinaon ‘shoulder,’ Opaie (ˇci-)k˜ a ‘shoulder.’ [AK 6, CP 4, AM 16, AMN]
7 KATI ‘bone’
?Khoisan: /Xam /kuttën ‘bone behind the ear,’ //Ng-!’e ketn ‘bone.’ [BD 87, 326]
Nilo-Saharan: ?Berta k’ara ‘bone,’ EastSudanic:Nera këtii(n), Kenuzi k¯ıd, Kundugr koidu, Turkana ako-, Lotuko -γ¯otyu, Bari kuyu, Debri kwedu, Proto-Southeast Surmic *gigec. [ES 21, NSB, SES]
Afro-Asiatic: Proto-Afro-Asiatic *qˇ s ‘bone’; Ancient Egyptian q´ s ‘bone’; Semitic: Arabic qas .s . ∼ gas .s . ‘sternum’; Cushitic: Proto-Cushitic *(m-)qS ‘bone,’ Kambata miqqa-ta (qq < *qS); Omotic: Jeba ÷´u´us-u (< *k’us), Badditu miqi-t¯ e, Wolamo maqa-tta; Berber: Proto-Berber *˙gs(j) ‘bone,’ Shilha ixs, Kabyle i˙ges, Tuareg e˙ g¯ es; Chadic: Proto-Chadic k’ ˜ s(j) ‘bone,’ Proto-West Chadic *h .a-k’asi, Hausa k’¯ aˇ s´ ¯ ı, Musgu ke ˜ s’ke, Gerka γas, Somrai guseÑ, Karbo k¯aso ∼ k¯asi. [CS 225, AA 11, N 219, OS 620, HF 12]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European*kos-t ‘bone’; Italic:Latincosta ‘rib’; Slavic: Old Church Slavic kost˘ ı ‘rib,’ Serbo-Croatian kˆost, Russian kostj. [IE 616, N 219]
?Uralic: Samoyed: Kamassian kot ‘rib’; Finnic: Mordvin kask˘ a ∼ kaske‘sacrum.’ [ N 219, SUL 492]
Dravidian: Kurux x¯oc(-ol) ‘bone,’ Malto qoc(-lu). [D 1288]
Chukchi-Kamchatkan: Proto-Chukchi-Kamchatkan *(χ)ëtä-χëmV ‘bone.’ [CK 1]
?Eskimo-Aleut: Proto-Eskimo-Aleut *qat’ì ‘breast, ribs.’ [EA]
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian *k˘ ots’a ‘kind of bone,’ Proto-Dido *k’ots’u ‘back of head,’ Proto-Lezghian *k’ats’a ‘vertebra, shin,’ Proto-Xinalug *kìz ‘thigh, hip.’ [C 116]
Basque gar-khotx(e) ‘nape’ (gara = ‘skull’).
?Burushaski känˇja ‘back of neck, neck joint.’
Sino-Tibetan: Proto-Sino-Tibetan *kut ‘bone,’ Old Chinese *kwët. [SC 57]
Na-Dene: Haida (s)kuts ∼ (s)kuˇ gi ‘bone,’ Eyak q’ahˇ s. [ND]
Indo-Pacific: South New Guinea: Dabu kut ‘bone,’ Dibolug kute, Ngamai kuta, Kawam kutra, Parb kwod, Tunjuamu guat, Tokwasa kuart, Bangu kuar, Keladdar kadrowa. [SNG 9]
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan: Bella Bella k’¯odzo ‘bone, rib’ (borrowing from Chinook?), Pawnee k¯ısu ‘bone,’ Wichita k¯ıs÷a, Acoma ya-gëts’-ëni ‘rib’; Penutian: Chinook qotso ‘bone,’ Northern Sierra Miwok kyˇ cˇcyˇ c, PlainsMiwokkëˇ cëˇ c, Yukik’i÷t, Wappok´ ut .e ‘rib,’ Chitimachakats i ‘bone,’ Uspantec k’alk’aˇ s ‘rib’; Chibchan-Paezan: Binticua katia ∼ kiasi ‘rib,’Matanawi kisi, Atacame˜no kada ‘bone,’ Itonama ˇ cìdìki, Chimu ˇcotti, Colorado ˇcide; Andean: Selknam q’ejt’ ‘breastbone,’ Mapudungu kadi ‘rib,’ Genneken uguets ‘bone,’ Alakaluf akˇsiase ‘rib’; Macro-Tucanoan: Kapishana nya-kots¯ ı; Equatorial: Caranga kaiˇcu ‘bone’; Macro-Panoan: Cavine˜na (epere-)’katse ‘rib,’ Komlek kadekotti ‘bone,’ Caduveo kodauek’o ‘rib.’ [AM 141, P 102, CP 23, AIW, AMN]
8 K’OLO ‘hole’
Khoisan: =Au.//eˆ ı !kuru ‘quiver’ (n.), !Kung !kòro ‘hole,’ !kuru ‘quiver’ (n.), !koro ‘hole, grave,’ !O-!Kung kòlò ‘hollow’; G//abake koro ‘hole in tree,’ (ˇ cui) kxolo ‘nostrils’ (= nose hole); /Xam !kòrro ‘to be hollow,’ /huru ‘hole,’ /¯uru ‘anus,’ /’Auni !kuru ‘quiver’ (n.). [SAK 371]
Nilo-Saharan: Songhai nkoro ‘buttocks’; Saharan: Kanuri kuli ‘anus,’ Teda kulo; Berta k’oÑ-k’oloÑ ∼ kwòn-kwòlòÑ ‘elbow’ (= arm-hole, cf. the Kunama form below); Koman: Buldiit kul(ma) ‘buttocks’; Kunama kura ‘anus,’ ukunkula ‘armpit, elbow’ (< *kan-kul ‘arm-hole’); East Sudanic: Temein kukuruk(it) ‘buttocks,’ Nandikulkul ‘armpit,’ Soukòlkòl ‘armpit,’ Gaam kura-n ‘hollow (in ground).’ [NS 4, CN 2, 5, ES 3, NSD 3, KER 432]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *(s)k¯ulo ‘hiding place, back part’; Indic: Sanskrit k¯ulam ‘rear of army’; Italic: Latin c¯ulus ‘buttocks, anus,’ cl¯unis ‘buttock, hip’; Celtic: Old Irish c¯ ul ‘back, rear,’ Welsh cil ‘back,’ cl`un ‘buttock’; Germanic: Proto-Germanic *hulo ‘hole,’ Gothic hulundi ‘cave,’ English hole, Swedish n¨as-h˚ ala ‘nostril.’ [IE 951]
Uralic: Proto-Finno-Ugric *k¨ ol ‘hole’; Ugric: Vogul kal ∼hal ‘crack,’ Ostyak k˘ ol ∼ hul, Hungarian halok ‘incision’; Finnic: Finnish kolo ‘hole, crack,’ Saami golo ‘fissure,’ Zyrian kolas ‘crack,’ Cheremis kongëla ‘armpit,’ Southern Estonian kaÑgel ‘shoulder.’ [U 101, 106, N 220, EU] Korean kul ‘cave.’ [EU]
Japanese-Ryukyuan: Japanese kur ‘hollow, scoop out.’ [EU]
Dravidian: Tulu kullig` e ‘buttocks,’ kaÑkul .a ‘armpit’ (= arm-hole), Kolami k¯ ula ‘buttock,’ ganjg¯uly ‘armpit,’ Gondi kula ‘buttock,’ k¯akri ‘armpit,’ Kannada kaÑkur ∼ gaÑkëlu ‘armpit,’ Telugu kauÑgili ‘breast,’ tsaÑkili ∼ tsakkili ‘armpit’ (= arm-hole), Malayalam akkul .am ‘armpit, tickling,’ Tamil akkul . ‘armpit,’ akkul .u ‘to tickle.’ [D 1234, 2274, Supplement 30; N 220, NSD 3]
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian *kHwëÌrV ‘hole, pit, ravine,’ Proto-Nax *k¯ or ‘window,’ Proto-Dido *kurV ‘ravine,’ Proto-Lak *kuIru ‘nest,’ ProtoDargi *kur ‘pit,’ Proto-Lezghian *kur ‘pit, river,’ Lezgi k’ul-ux ‘backwards,’ k’ul-ux-k’il ‘hip, posterior, buttocks,’ Kurin qula ‘loins, buttocks.’ [C 113, JR 58]
Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Proto-Tibeto-Burman *kor ∼ *kwar ‘hole,’ *kali ‘armpit, tickle,’ Tibetan (West) kor ‘hollow in the ground, pit,’ Lushei khuar ∼ khur ‘hole,’ kor ‘ravine,’ Dimasa ha-khor ‘cave’ (= earthhole), sisi-khor ‘armpit’ (= tickle-hole), Bodo ha-khor ‘hole, valley,’ Bur mese k˘al´ ı ‘tickle,’ tshak-k˘ali ∼ lak-k˘ali ‘armpit’ (= arm-hole, cf. the Telugu form above), Lakher kili ‘tickle,’ ba-këli ‘armpit.’ [ST 265, 349, 350]
Na-Dene: Haida kunts-qul ∼ kwun-zool ‘nostril’ (= nose-hole). [ND]
Daic: Khamti k˘ale ‘tickle,’ kap k˘ale ‘armpit’ tsuÑ k˘ari ‘tickle,’ Shan sop k˘alit ‘armpit’; Tai: Proto-Tai *xru ∼ *ru ‘hole,’ *xru ÷daÑ ‘nostril’ (= hole nose). [PB 316, 410]
Austronesian: Proto-Austronesian *kili ‘shoulder,’ *kilikili ‘armpit,’ Tagalog kili(ti) ‘tickling,’ kilikili ‘armpit,’ Cham kël˘ek ‘tickle,’ Fijian kili ∼ kiri ‘armpit,’ Nggela kilikili ‘tickle a tired pig to make it go.’ [AN 80, 121, WW 187, PB 230, 410]
9 KUAN ‘dog’
Khoisan: /Xam !gw˜ a˜ ı ‘hyena,’ //Ng-!’e /x˜ a˜ı, /’Auni /k˜ a˜ın, Kakia /x˜ a˜ı, /Nu//en /¯un, !Kung /gw´ ı, !O-!Kung /gw˜ ı. [SAK 380, DB 48]
Afro-Asiatic: Proto-Afro-Asiatic *k(j)n ‘dog, wolf’; Omotic: Haruro k¯an¯ o, Basketo kan¯ a, Kullo kana, Gimira kjan, Kaffa kun¯an¯ o, Mao kano; Chadic: Gamergu ken¯ e, Jegu k´a´ n. [CS 189, N 238, UOL 175]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *kwon ∼ *kun ‘dog’; Phrygian kan; Greek ku¯on; Italic: Latin can(-is); Armenian ˇsun ∼ ˇsan; Indic: Sanskrit ¸ cvan; Iranian: Avestan span; Tocharian ku ∼ kon; Germanic: Old English hund, English hound. [IE 632, UOL 175, N 238, EU]
Uralic: Proto-Uralic (Illich-Svitych) *k¨ujn¨ a ‘wolf’; Finno-Ugric: Northern Saami gˆaidne ‘wolf,’ Udmurt k˘yjon ‘wolf,’ Komi k˙oin ‘wolf’; Samoyed: Ostyak Samoyed kana(-k) ‘dog’ (probably a borrowing) [N 238, UOL 175, EU]
Turkic: Old Turkish qanˇciq ‘bitch.’ [EU] Mongolian: Mongol qani ‘a wild masterless dog.’ [EU] Tungus: Proto-Tungus *xina ‘dog,’ Manchu (inda-)xun, Udej in‘ai, Oroch inaxki, Evenki ina, inakin, Lamut Ñen, Orok Ñinda. [N 238, EU] Korean ka ‘dog’ (< kani). [N 238, EU] Gilyak qan ∼ kan ‘dog.’ [EU]
Eskimo-Aleut: Sirenik qanaγa ‘wolf.’ [EU]
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian *χHw˘eje ‘dog,’ Proto-Avar-Andi *χwo÷i ‘dog,’ Proto-Lezghian *χÌw¨aja ‘dog.’ [C 212]
Basque haz-koin ‘badger’ (lit. ‘bear-dog’).
Yeniseian: Proto-Yeniseian *k¯u´ n ∼ *g¯u´ n ‘wolverine.’ [Y]
Sino-Tibetan: Proto-Sino-Tibetan *qhw¯ ıj ‘dog,’ Archaic Chinese *khiwën ‘dog’; Tibeto-Burman: Proto-Tibeto-Burman *kwiy, Tibetan khyi, Kanauri kui, Thebor khui, Vaya uri, Chepang kwi, Karen gwi. [ST 159, UOL 175] ?
Indo-Pacific: Pila kawun ‘dog,’ Saki kawuÑ, Wodani kawino. [FS 14]
?Austronesian: Proto-Oceanic *nkaun ‘dog.’ [WW 60]
Amerind: Hokan: Achomawi ku¯an ‘silver fox,’ Tonkawa ÷ekuan ‘dog,’ North Yana kuwan-na ‘lynx,’ Yurimangui kwan ‘dog’; Central Amerind: Jemez kiano, Isleta kuyanide, Taos kwiane-, Tewa tuxwana ‘fox, coyote,’ Zacapoaxtla itskwiin-ti ‘dog,’ Chatina ˇcuni, Popoloca kuniya, Ixcatec ÷uni˜na, Chocho ÷u˜ na; Chibchan-Paezan: Guamaca kensi; Equatorial: Esmeralda kine; Macro-Ge: Came okong, Serra do Chagu hong-kon. [A 86, CAN, UOL 176, AMN]
10 KU(N) ‘who?’
Khoisan: =Au.//eˆ ı kama ‘when, if,’ xa (interrogative particle), !Kung ka ‘when,’ !k˜u(-de) ‘who’; G//abake /kam ‘when,’ Naron kama ‘when, if,’ Nama hamo ‘when,’; /Xam !ku(dèxa) ‘who,’ xa (interrogative particle). [SAK 384, 388, 757, 764, UOL 70]
Niger-Congo: Pam këÌg´ e ‘which,’ Dama k´ a÷¯ ı ‘which,’ Jukun ´ak¯ e ‘what,’ Proto-Bantu *k´ ı∼ k´ a ‘which,’ Swahili ga-ni ‘what, why, what kind.’ [BA] Nilo-Saharan: Fur kii ‘who,’ ka ‘what,’ Daza ka ‘which,’ Masai ka ‘which,’ Didinga Ñani ‘who’ (< *kani ?), Liguri keneen ‘who,’ Nyala k-rem ‘how many,’ Shatt k-re˜ n ‘how many,’ Shabo kukne ‘who.’ [NS 149, CN 126, HF 12]
Afro-Asiatic: Proto-Afro-Asiatic *k(w) ∼ *q(w) ‘who’; Semitic: ProtoSemitic *kV ‘how,’ Arabic ka, Geez kama, Aramaic kë, Akkadian kima ∼ ki ‘how,’ South Arabian ko ‘how, why,’ Mehri ¯uk¯ o ‘why’; ?Berber: Tuareg akken ‘how,’ Gdames (më-)k; Cushitic: Proto-Cushitic *kw ‘who,’ Somali k´ u-ma ‘who (masc.),’ Oromo ka-mi ‘who,’ aka ‘how’; Omotic: Kaffa k¯o-n¯ e ‘who,’ Mao konne, Kullo hone, Wolamo ¯one, Beja k¯ak(u) ‘how’; Chadic: Proto-Chadic *k’(w) ‘who,’ Hausa k’` ¯ a, Bura ga ‘what,’ Logone γwani, Somrai k¯ana ‘who,’ Mubi gin. [N 232, UOL 70]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *kwo ∼ *kwi ‘who,’ *-kwe (coordinating conjunction); Indic: Sanskrit kas ‘who’; Iranian: Avestan k¯ o; Armenian o (< *kwo); Anatolian: Hittite kuiˇ s ‘who,’ kuit ‘what,’ Luwian kui ‘who,’ Lydian qis ‘who,’ qid ‘what’; Albanian k¨ e ‘whose’; Italic: Latin quis ‘who,’ quis-que ‘whoever,’ quod ‘what,’ quam ‘how, as,’ quom ‘when,’ (arma virum)-que ‘(arms) and (the man)’; Celtic: Old Irish cia ‘who,’ cid ‘what’; Germanic: Gothic hwas ‘who,’ English who, what, when, where, why, how; Baltic: Old Prussian kas ‘who,’ ka ‘what’; Slavic: Old Church Slavic kbto ‘who’; Tocharian: Tocharian A kus ‘who, what.’ [IE 644, N 232, EU, UOL 70]
Uralic: Proto-Uralic (R´edei) *ke ∼ *ki ‘who,’ (R´edei) *ku ∼ *ko ‘who, which, ?what’; Yukaghir kin ‘who,’ hon ‘where,’ hadi ‘which,’ hodier ‘why’; Proto-Uralic (Illich-Svitych) *ke ∼ *ko ∼ *ku ‘who’; Samoyed: Yurak hu ‘who,’ huna ‘where,’ Tavgy kua ‘which,’ kuninu ‘where,’ kune ‘when,’ Selkupkutte ‘who,’ kun‘where,’ Kamassian kaam˜on‘when’; Ugric: Vogul kon ‘who,’ qun ‘when,’ Ostyak h˘ ojë ‘who,’ h˘ otë ‘what,’ hun ‘when,’ Hungarian ki ‘who’; Finnic: Finnish ken ∼ kene ∼ ke ∼ ku ∼ kuka ‘who,’ kussa ‘where,’ koska ‘when,’ Saami gi ∼ gæ ∼ gutti ‘who,’ gokt˘ e ‘how,’ Mordvin ki ‘who,’ Cheremis ke ∼ k¨ o ∼ k¨ u ∼ kud˜ o, Votyak kin ‘who,’ kin-ke ‘someone,’ ku ‘when,’ Zyrian kin ‘who,’ kod ‘which,’ ko ‘when.’ [U 44, 46, N 223, 232, EU, KR 140, 191]
Turkic: Proto-Turkic *k‘Em ‘who,’ *ka ∼ *qa (interrogative base), Chuvash kam ‘who,’ Old Turkish k¨am ‘who,’ qa-˜nu ‘which,’ qa-na ‘where,’ Old Uighur kim ‘who,’ qaju ‘which,’ qajda ‘where,’ Tatar kem ‘who,’ Karagas kum ∼ kym, Jakut kim, Old Oguz qanda ‘where.’ [N 223, 232, EU, UOL 70]
Mongolian: Proto-Mongolian *k˙e-n ‘who,’ *ka ‘where, whither,’ Written Mongolian ken ‘who,’ qa-mi-ga ‘where,’ Khalkha xeÑ ‘who,’ x¯ana (< *kaga-na)‘where,’ Kalmyk ken ‘who,’ x¯ a (< *ka-ga)‘where, whither,’ Moghol ken ‘who.’ [N 223, 232, EU]
Tungus: Proto-Tungus *xa ‘what, how, how much,’ Nanai xaj ‘what,’ xadu ‘how much,’ xoni ‘how,’ Manchu aj ‘what,’ udu ‘how much,’ Udihe ¯ ı ‘what,’ adi ‘how much,’ ono ‘how,’ Even ¯ı-r¨ak ‘how,’ adi ‘how much,’ ¯ on(i) ‘how.’ [N 232, EU] Korean ka (interrogative particle). [N 232, EU]
Japanese-Ryukyuan: Japanese ka (interrogative particle, indefinitizer), ka . . . ka(alternating conjunction), Ryukyuan ˇ ca ‘what.’ [EU]
Ainu ka (interrogative particle, indefinitizer), ka . . . ka(coordinating conjunction). [EU]
Gilyak ka (interrogative particle), ko . . . ko(coordinating conjunction). [EU]
Chukchi-Kamchatkan: Kamchadal k’e ‘who’ (genitive k’en), Chukchi mik ∼ mek ‘who,’ req ∼ raq ‘what,’ Koryak qej . . . qej ‘either . . . or,’ kur ‘to be who?, to be what?,’ Kerek jaq ‘who, what.’ [EU]
Eskimo-Aleut: Proto-Eskimo-Aleut *ken ‘who,’ *qa- (interrogative pronoun), Aleut ki-n ‘who,’ qata ‘where, whither, what,’ qanangun ‘where,’ qanayam ‘when,’ qanagan ‘whence,’ Eskimo ki-na ‘who,’ Greenlandic qaÑga ‘when,’ qanuq ‘how,’ Siberian Yuit qafsina ‘how many,’ Alaskan Yuit -ka (question particle). [EU, EA 118, 121]
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian *kwi ‘who, which,’ Kurin ku- ‘what,’ Archi kwi‘who,’ Avar khi-n ‘how.’ [UOL 70, SC 149]
Burushaski kè ‘if, when,’ kè ‘and,’ kè ...k è ‘both . . . and,’ (men . . .) kè ‘(who)ever.’ [B 231, 265]
Sino-Tibetan: Old Chinese *kjei ‘how much,’ Hruso khi-nia ‘how many,’ khi-mia ‘how far.’ [SC 149]
Na-Dene: Haida gyis-to ∼ kiˇs-to ‘who,’ g¯osu ∼ guu(s) ‘what,’ gyinu ‘where,’ giisant ‘when’; Tlingit kusu∼g`us´ u∼g¯ u ‘where,’ k¯unsa ‘how much.’ [ND] ?
Australian: Maung gunuga ∼ gigi ‘what,’ Tiwi kuwa ‘who,’ kamu ‘what.’ [RD 373, 376]
Nahali (nani) ka ‘anyone’ (nani ‘who’), (nan) ka ‘anything’ (nan ‘what’). [NA 92]
Austroasiatic: Munda o-ko-e ‘who,’ o-ka ‘what,’ ˇce-le ‘which’; Mon-Khmer: Vietnamese gi ‘what,’ Nicobarese ˇ ci ‘who,’ ˇci-n ‘who, what,’ kah¨ a ‘what,’ ˇ can ∼ ˇcu ‘where.’ [UOL 70]
Austronesian: Proto-Austronesian *ku‘a[‘] ‘how.’ [AN]
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan:Kutenaika ‘where,’ Wiyotgu- ‘when, where,’ Yurok kus ‘when, where,’ Passamaquoddy kekw ‘what,’ Chemakum ¯ aˇc’is ‘what,’ Quileute ak’is ‘what,’ qo- ‘where,’ Nootka ÷aqi- ‘what,’ Bella Bella akoiqkan ‘who,’ Pentlatch kwënˇca ‘where,’ kwës ‘when,’ Upper Chehalis ka-n ‘do what?,’ Keres h¯eko ‘whither,’ Quapaw ka ‘what,’ Ofo kaka ‘what,’ Wichita ÷¯ekiya÷ ‘who,’ Caddo kwit ‘where,’ Cherokee gago ‘who,’ Onondaga kanin ‘where,’ Seneca kwanu ‘who,’ Mohawk ka ‘where’; Penutian: Tsimshiangu‘who,’ Alsea qau, Kalapuya ¯uk, Coos qanˇ c ‘where,’ Siuslaw qani, Klamath kani ‘who,’ ka ‘which,’ Bodega Miwok ÷eke ‘what,’ ÷eketto ‘where,’ Zuni k¯ak’i-pi ‘when,’ Tunica kaku ‘who,’ kanahku ‘what,’ ka÷aˇ s ‘when,’ Natchez kanne ‘someone,’ g¯ oˇ s ‘what,’ Huave xaÑ ‘who,’ key ‘what,’ Quiche xan ‘when’; Hokan: Achomawi k¯ ı ‘who,’ Washo kudiÑa ‘who,’ kuÑate ‘what,’ kuÑa ‘where,’ East Pomo kia ‘who,’ k’owa ‘what,’ Chumash kune ‘who,’ kenu ‘why,’ Esselen kini ‘who,’ ke ‘where,’ Walapai ka ‘who,’ Seri ki÷, Coahuilteco ka ‘what,’ Chontal kana÷ ‘when,’ Tlappanec gwana, Jicaque kat ‘where,’ Yurimangui kana ‘what,’ kuna ‘where’; Central Amerind: Proto-Aztecan *kaan ‘where,’ *keem ‘how,’ *kee-ski ‘how much, how many,’ Nahua a÷kon ‘who,’ Zacapoaxtla akoni, Yaqui hakuni ‘where,’ Isthmus Zapotec guna÷, Mazatec k÷ia ‘when’; Chibchan Paezan: Cuna kana ‘when,’ Miskito ajkia, Paya agini, Terraba kene ‘where,’ Tirub ko˜ne, Totoro kin ‘who,’ Paez kim ‘who,’ k˜ıh ‘what,’ Catio kai ‘who,’ Moguex kina ‘who, what,’ Tucura karea ‘why’; Andean: Yahgan kunna ‘who,’ kanin(a) ‘towhom,’ kana ‘where,’ Tehuelche keme ‘who,’ ken ‘which,’ kenaˇ s ‘when,’ kienai ‘where,’ Araucanian kam ‘how,’ Aymara kuna ‘what,’ kamisa ‘how,’ Iquito kanääka ‘who,’ Aymara kuna ‘what,’ kauki ‘where’; Macro-Tucanoan: Ticuna karo ‘where,’ kejaito ‘when’; Equatorial: Ayoreg¯osi ‘who,’ Tuyonerikate ‘what,’ Yarurokanemo ‘when,’ Uru kanˇcu, Wapishana kanum ‘what,’ Puquina kin; Macro-Carib: Yabarana ekkwarijawa ‘when,’ akëtto ‘where,’ Witoto ak¨ o ‘what,’ Miranya kia ‘where,’ Faai kiati, Andoke koide ‘who’; Macro-Panoan: Lule kine-kinema, Macca katsik ‘who,’ kona ‘when’ (rel.), Taruma gaga ‘what,’ Tacana ketsunu ‘when,’ kepia ‘where.’ [AM: G102; UOL 70, AMN]
11 KUNA ‘woman’
Afro-Asiatic: Proto-Afro-Asiatic *k(w)n ∼ *knw ‘wife, woman’; Omotic: Chara g¨an¯ets ‘woman,’ Kaffa ge¯ ne ‘lady,’ Mocha g¨a¯ ne ‘lady, woman,’ Shinasha ge¯na ‘lady’; Cushitic: Proto-Cushitic *H-kwn ‘wife,’ Bilin ’ ‘ëxwina (pl. ’ëkwin) ‘wife,’ Xamta eqwen ‘wife,’ Dembia ki¯un¯ a ‘wife,’ Avija xuon¯ a ‘wife,’ Oromo qena ‘lady’; Semitic: Akkadian kin¯ıtu ∼ qin¯ıtu ‘one of the wives in a harem’; Berber: Proto-Berber *t-knw ‘wife,’ Tuareg t¯ekne ‘wife,’ Kabyle t ¯ akna ‘one of the wives in polygamy’; Chadic: Margi Ñkw` a ‘girl’ (< *m-kw` a), Igala ginum ‘woman,’ Makari gerim ‘woman,’ Logone gënëm ‘woman.’ [N 178, UOL 179]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *gwen ∼ *gwen¯ a ‘wife, woman’; Anatolian:Lydian kˆana ‘woman, wife,’ Luwian wan¯ a; Indic: Sanskrit gn¯ a ‘goddess’; Iranian: Avestan gën¯ a ‘wife’; Armenian kin (pl. kanai-k‘); Greek: Mycenaean ku-na-ja; Albanian grue ∼ grua; Celtic: Old Irish ben; Germanic: Gothic qino, Old High German quena, English queen; Baltic: Old Prussian genno ‘wife’; Slavic: Old Church Slavic ˇzena; Tocharian: Tocharian B ´sana. [IE 473, N 178, EU, LC 922, UOL 179]
Turkic: Proto-Turkic *k¨uni ‘one of the wives in polygamy,’ Old Turkic k¨uni ‘wife,’ Kirghiz k¨un¨ u, Azerbaijani g¨un¨ u. [N 178]
Eskimo-Aleut: Proto-Eskimo-Aleut *÷a∏(ì)na- ‘woman,’ Eskimo: Alaskan aganak, Greenlandic arnaq, Yuit arnaq ‘female person, woman.’ [EU]
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian *q(w)¨anV ‘woman,’ Proto-Dagestan *qonV(¯pV). [EC, NSC 59] ?
Indo-Pacific: Andaman Islands: Bea ch´ana ‘woman,’ chana-da ‘mother’; Tasmanian: Southeast quani ‘wife, woman’; Mugil kanen ‘mother.’ [T 471, UOL 180]
Australian: Warrgamay gajin ‘female of human or animal species,’ Gamilaraay gunijarr ‘mother,’ Ngaanyatjara ngunytju, Jalnguy guyÑgun ‘spirit of a dead woman.’ [RD 119, UOL 180] ?Austroasiatic: Mon-Khmer: Nancowry k¯an ∼ k¯ane ‘woman.’ [UOL 179]
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan: Shawnee kwan-iswa ‘girl,’ Nootka ganëmo, Bella Bella ganëm ‘woman, wife,’ Lkungen kaÑi ‘girl,’ Spokane en-okhono ‘wife,’ Siletz qena÷s ‘grandmother,’ Santa Ana k’uwi ‘woman, wife,’ Dakota hun ‘mother,’ Yuchi wa-hane ‘old woman’; Penutian: Tsimshian han¯ aG ‘woman,’ Cayuse kwun-asa ‘girl,’ Yawelmani ga¯ına ‘woman,’ Konkow k´onoj ‘woman, wife,’ Nisenan kono ‘girl,’ San Juan Bautista atsiaxnis, Lake Miwok ÷unu ‘mother,’ Zuni k’anakwayina ‘woman,’ Yuki aÑk’an‘mother’; Hokan: Chumashkunup ‘girl,’ Diegue˜ nokux-kwanj‘mother,’ xe-kwanj ‘daughter,’ Seri ku˜aam ‘female,’ koÑk´aii ‘wife,’ Tonkawa kw¯an ‘woman,’ Karankawa kanin ‘mother,’ Tequistlatec (¬-)aga÷no ‘woman, female’; Central Amerind: Proto-Tiwa *kwiem ‘maiden,’ Papago h´oo˜nig¨ ı ‘wife,’ Isthmus Zapotec gun´ aa ‘woman’; Chibchan-Paezan: Boncota g¨uina ‘female,’ Ulua guana, Pedraza konui-xa ‘daughter,’ Choco huena ‘woman,’ Paez kuenas ‘young woman’; Andean: Simacu kaxkanu ‘daughter-in-law,’ Yahgan ˇcou-kani-kipa ‘young woman,’ Kulli ka˜ ni ‘sister,’ Cholon aki˜niu, Alakaluf ekin-eˇ c ‘woman,’ Tsoneka na-kuna; Macro-Tucanoan: Nadobo ku˜nan, S¨ar¨ a kana‘mother’; Equatorial: Yurucareig˜un‘girl,’ ti-g˜un‘daughter,’ Cuica kuneu-ksoy ‘girl,’ kunakunam ‘woman,’ Proto-Tupi *kuy˜ a, Guarani ku˜ na ‘female,’ ku˜na-ta˜ ı ‘girl,’ Guarayo ekuna ‘woman,’ Canoeiro ku˜na-tain ‘small girl,’ Kamayura kunja ‘woman,’ Guahibo kvantua ‘first wife,’ Amuesha kuyan-iˇ sa ‘woman’; Macro-Carib: Palmella ena-kone ‘mother,’ Accawai kana-muna ‘girl,’ Muinane kìni-˜no, Miranya guaniu ‘mother’; Macro-Panoan: Chama egwan-asi ‘woman,’ Lengua iÑ-kyin ‘mother,’ Sanapana k¨uli-guana-man ‘old woman,’ ?Chacobo huini ‘female,’ ?Cavine˜na ekwa÷a ‘mother’; Macro-Ge: Suya ku˜ na ‘woman,’ Cherente pi-kon, Capaxo konjan, Caraja han¨ok¨ o. [AM 272, P 283, H 164, LC 922, AMN]
12 MAKO ‘child’
?Niger-Congo: Bantu:NgoalamaÑku‘child,’ YaundemoÑgo, PandemaÑga, Mbudikum-Bamum muÑke. [HJ II: 271]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *maghos ‘young,’ *maghu ‘child, boy’; Iranian: Avestan maγava ‘unmarried’; Celtic: Old Irish macc ‘son’; Germanic: Gothic magus ‘boy,’ Old English magu ‘child, son, man,’ Swedish m˚ ag ‘son-in-law’; Baltic: Latvian maˇ c (gen. ma´ga) ‘small.’ [IE 696, AB 371]
Dravidian: Tamil maka ‘child, young of an animal, son or daughter,’ Malayalam makan ‘son,’ makkal . ‘children (esp. sons),’ Kota mog ‘child,’ Toda mox ‘child, son, male, daughter,’ Kannada maga ‘son, male person,’ makan ‘son,’ magu ‘infant, child of either sex,’ Kodagu makka ‘children,’ Tulu mage ‘son,’ magal .u ‘daughter,’ Telugu maga ‘male,’ Konda moga kor .o ‘boy child,’ g¯alu ‘daughter’ (< *mg¯alu), Pengo g¯ ar . ‘daughter,’ Kuwi maka (vocative used to daughters and sisters in affection), Malto maqe ‘boy,’ maqi ‘girl,’ maqo ‘small, little, young,’ maqu ‘young of an animal.’ [D 4616, AB 371]
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian *mik’wV ‘small, young one,’ Proto-Avar-Andi *mok’i ∼ *mik’i ‘small, child,’ Proto-Dido *mik’V ‘small, little,’ ProtoLezghian *mik’wV ‘young.’ [C 151]
Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Proto-Tibeto-Burman *m¯ak ‘son-in-law,’ Miri mak(-bo),’ Burmese (sa-)mak, Lushei m¯ak(-pa). [ST 324]
Indo-Pacific: Southwest New Guinea: Jaqai mak ‘child,’ Aghu amoko, Madinava imega(-kaivagu). [SWNG 12]
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan: Natick mukketchouks ‘boy,’ Beothuk magaraguis ‘son,’ SantaAna -ma’kë ‘mydaughter,’ Acoma magë ‘girl,’ Hidatsa makadiˇstamia; Penutian: Cayuse m’oks ‘baby,’ Modoc mukak, Gashowu mokheta ‘girl,’ Santa Cruz mux-aˇ s, Zuni maki ‘young woman,’ Yuki muh ‘young,’ Mixe mahntk ‘son,’ ?miˇ s ‘girl, boy’; Hokan: Achomawi mik-tsan ‘child’ (-tsan = dim.), Yana ÷imx ‘young,’ Washo m`ehu ‘boy,’ Chumash (Santa Barbara) miˇcamo ‘boy,’ amiˇcanek ‘girl,’ Chumash (Santa Ynez) makˇcai ‘daughter,’ mak-isi-huanok ‘girl,’ Cocopa xmik ‘boy,’ Walapai mik, Maricopa maxay, Yuman maˇsa-xay ‘girl,’ Tequistlatec (¬a-)mihkano ‘boy’; Central Amerind: Tewa mog` e ‘young,’ ?Otomi metsi ‘boy’; Chibchan-Paezan: Cunamaˇci(-gua), Uluamuix-bine ‘child,’ Chimilamuka ‘son-in-law,’ muka-yunkvir ‘daughter,’ Shiriana moko ‘girl,’ Nonama mukua ‘daughter,’ muˇcaira ‘son’; Andean: Yahgan maku ‘son,’ makou-esa ‘daughter-in-law,’ Yamana m¯aku-n ‘son’; Macro-Tucanoan: Yeba m˜ak˜ e˜ e ‘child,’ yimaki ‘son,’ Waikina maxk˜ e ‘child,’ mehino ‘boy,’ Dyurumawa (ma-)maki ‘(small) child,’ Coto ma-make ‘boy,’ Tucano muktuia ‘boy, girl,’ vimago ‘girl,’ dyemaxk˜ ı ‘child,’ Curetu si-mag¨ o ‘daughter,’ si-mugi ‘son,’ Waiana yemakë ‘daughter,’ ¨Om¨oa yemaxke ‘son,’ Ticuna m¯akan ‘child,’ Desana mague ‘son,’ Auake makuam˜ e, Waikina make; Equatorial: Mehinacu yamakui ‘boy,’ Paumari makinaua ‘boy, young,’ -makhini ‘grandson,’ Marawan makibmani ‘boy,’ Uru maˇ ci ‘daughter,’ Caranga maˇ c ‘son,’ Oyampi kuny˜a-muku- ‘girl,’ Maue makubdia, Tambe kusamuku ‘young woman’; Macro-Carib: Yabarana m¯uku ‘boy,’ Galibi magon ‘young of animals,’ Cumanagote miku ‘child,’ Pavishana mu’gi ‘daughter,’ Taulipang muku ‘son,’ Accawai mogo; Macro-Panoan: Tiatinagua mahi; Macro-Ge: Apinage m¨aaukride ‘girl,’ Ramkokamekran m¨aggepru, Coroado meke-ˇsambe ‘son.’ [AM 62, AMN]
13 MALIQ’A ‘to suck(le), nurse; breast’
Afro-Asiatic: Proto-Afro-Asiatic: *mlg ‘breast, udder, suck,’ Arabic mlˇ g ‘to suck the breast,’ Old Egyptian mnd ¯ (< *mlg) ‘woman’s breast, udder’; Cushitic: Somali maal- ‘to milk,’ Rendille ma .a .l-. [N 291, LN 291]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *melˆ g- ‘to milk’; Greek α ’μ´λγω; Italic: Latin mulg-¯ere; Celtic: Irish bligim ‘to milk,’ mlicht ‘milk’; Germanic: Gothic miluks ‘milk,’ Old Norse mjolka ‘to milk,’ English ‘to milk, milk’; Baltic: Lithuanian milˇzti ‘to milk’; Slavic: Old Church Slavic mlˇesti; Albanian mjell¨ e; Tocharian: Tocharian A m¯alk-lune ‘milking,’ malke ‘milk,’ Tocharian B malk-wer ‘milk.’ [IE 722]
Uralic: Proto-Uralic(Illich-Svitych)*m¨ alγe ‘breast,’ Proto-Finno-Ugric(R´ edei) *m¨alke; Saami mielgˆ a ‘breast, chest,’ Mordvin m¨alhk¨ a ‘breast,’ Vogul m¨agl (with metathesis), Hungarian mell, Yukaghir melu-t. [N 291, R 267]
Dravidian: Kurux melkh¯ a ‘throat, neck’ and Malto melqe ‘throat,’ Tamil melku ‘to chew, masticate,’ Malayalam melluka ‘to chew, champ,’ Toda mel .k ‘mouthful,’ Kannada mellu ‘tochew, masticate, eatwithamuttering sound,’ melaku ‘bringing up again for rumination,’ Telugu mekku ‘to eat, gobble,’ Gadba mekkap- ‘to eat like a glutton.’ [D 5077, 5080]
Eskimo-Aleut: Aleut umlix ‘chest,’ Kuskokwim milugˆ a ‘sucks it out,’ mulik ‘nipple,’ milˆugarˆ a ‘licks (or sucks) it; kisses it (a child).’ [EU]
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian *mVq’VlV ‘throat, larynx,’ Proto-Avar-Andi *ma¯q’ala ‘throat,’ Proto-Dido *muq’, Proto-Dargi *muq’luq’ ‘chute, gutter.’ [C 142]
Amerind: Almosan: Lower Fraser mëlqw ‘throat,’ Nootka m ’ ukw ‘swallow,’ Kwakwala m ’ l .χw-÷id ‘chew food for the baby,’ m ’ l .qwa ‘moisten the fingers with the tongue,’ Heiltsuk m ’ elqva ‘chew food for baby,’ m ’ elχv-ba´ ut ‘lick the end of something,’ Yurok mik’olum ‘swallow,’ Kutenai u÷mqo¬; Penutian: Chinook -m´ ¯ oku¯ ı- ‘throat,’ mlqw-tan ‘cheek,’ Wishram ¯o-m¯eqλ ‘lick’; Oregon: Takelma m¨ulk’ ‘swallow,’ Tfalatik milq, Kalapuya malqmat ‘lick’; Yokuts m¯ok’i ‘swallow,’ mik’-is ‘throat,’ Mixe amu÷ul ‘suck,’ Zoque mu÷k; Hokan: Yuma maljaq´ e ‘neck,’ Walapai malqi’ ‘throat, neck’ Havasupai milq´ e ‘throat,’ Yavapai melq´ ı ‘neck,’ Mohave maljaq´ e ‘throat,’ Akwa’ala milq´ ı ‘neck,’ Paipai milq´ ı; Chibchan: Cuna murki-makka ‘swallow,’ murgi murgi sae ‘swallow food’; Andean: Quechua (Cochabamba) malq’a ‘throat,’ Quechua (Huaraz) mallaqa ‘be hungry’; Aymara maλq’a ‘swallow, throat’ (a borrowing from Quechua?) Equatorial: Guamo mirko ‘drink.’ [P 239, AMN; this etymology is explored in greater detail in Chapter 11.]
14 MANA ‘to stay (in a place)’
?Nilo-Saharan: Tatoga mi˙ n ‘to stand,’ Shabo maÑ-ka ‘to sit.’ [NSB, HF 12]
Afro-Asiatic: Proto-Afro-Asiatic *mn ‘to remain, be firm’; Ancient Egyptian mn ‘to remain,’ Coptic mun; Semitic: Proto-Semitic *’mn ‘to be firm, safe,’ Arabic ’munu ‘to be loyal to someone,’ ’manu ‘to be safe,’ Geez ’mn ‘to be faithful,’ Syriac ’am¯ın ‘firm,’ Classical Hebrew (n-)’mn ‘to be permanent, safe’; Omotic: Gofa min ‘to be firm, strong’; Cushitic: Oromo man¯ a ‘house, home,’ Somali m¯ın; Chadic: Musgu mine ‘to be.’ [CS 38, N 287, UOL 192]
?Kartvelian: Georgian mena ‘dwelling’ (possibly a borrowing from Iranian languages). [N 287]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *men ‘to remain’; Indic: Sanskrit man ‘to linger, not budge from a place’; Iranian: Old Persian man ‘to remain, wait for’; Armenian mnam ‘I remain, wait for’; Italic: Latin man(-ere) ‘to remain’; Tocharian: Tocharian A m˜ ne ‘waiting,’ m¨ask (< *men-sk) ‘to be.’ [IE 729, N 287, UOL 192]
Dravidian: Proto-Dravidian *man ‘to remain in a place,’ Brahui manning ‘to become, be,’ Malto mene, Kurux mann¯ a, Kuwi man ‘to be, remain, stay,’ Konda man ‘to be, stay, dwell,’ Parji men ‘to be, stay,’ Telugu manu ‘to live, exist,’ mannu ‘to last, be durable,’ Malayalam mannuka ‘to stand fast,’ Tamil man ¯ n ¯ u ‘to be permanent, remain long, stay.’ [D 4778, N 287]
Tungus: Evenki m¯ ¨ an¯ ¨ a ‘to live settled, stay in camp for a long time in one place,’ Negidal m¨an¨ aˇ g¨ a ‘to remain.’ [N 287]
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian *÷i-ma(n)- ‘to stay, be,’ Hurrian mann- ‘to be.’ [NSC 111]
Basque min ‘to place, set up, settle.’
Burushaski män(-äs) ‘to be, become.’ [B 257]
Indo-Pacific: South New Guinea: Makleu man ‘to sit,’ Jab m¨on; Central New Guinea: Siane min ‘to stay, sit,’ Gende mina ‘stay,’ Mogei mana(-munt) ‘to sit,’ Kuno amen(-nyint); Northeast New Guinea: Langtub min ‘to stay’; Unclassified New Guinea: Waruna mana ‘to dwell,’ Gogodala mana ‘to sit, stay.’ [IP 65]
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan: Nootka ma- ‘dwell’; Penutian: Tsimshian m¯an ‘remain,’ Kalapuya m¯anì- ‘wait,’ Maidu ma ‘be,’ Zuni ÷¯ıma ‘sit’; Hokan: Subtiaba -ama; Chibchan-Paezan: Cacaopera ima ‘wait,’ Puruha ma ‘be,’ Timicua -ma ‘inside’; Andean: Cholona -man ‘in,’ Aymara mankxa ‘inside,’ Araucanian minu, Quechua ma- ‘be,’ Yahgan mani ‘be,’ jumanana ‘live,’ m¨oni ‘remain,’ kamani ‘stand’; Equatorial: Dzubucua ma˜ ne ‘remain,’ Otomi yamania ‘live,’ Paumari gamanani ‘stand,’ Coche xamnan ‘be’; Macro-Carib: Yameo mune ‘sit down,’ Ocaina m¯un÷xo ‘remain,’ Apiaca umano ‘wait’; Macro-Panoan: Cashinawa mana, Shipibo manei ‘remain,’ Chacoboman- ‘wait,’ Panobomanai, Lule -ma ‘in’; Macro-Ge: Botocudo m¯en ‘remain,’ Crengez moinj ‘to sit,’ Capoxo moinjam, Bororo a¯ mu ∼ a¯ mi ‘to rest,’ Cayapo kaimaniun ‘stand,’ kaman ‘inside,’ Tibagi ema ‘dwell,’ [AM: G46, A 59, MG 99, AMN]
15 MANO ‘man’
?Niger-Congo: Bantu: Mbudikum-Bamum -mani ‘man,’ Rwanda mana, Nyanja -muna, Ci-ambo -mna. Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Me’en mè÷èn- ‘person,’ Maban mèn@n@u, Tama ma, Ik am, Didinga mats‘male,’ Merarit mo, Dinka mots , Maban: Mabang ma-ˇsu ‘person.’ [ES70, NSB]
Afro-Asiatic: Proto-Afro-Asiatic *mn ‘male, man, person’; Ancient Egyptian mnw ‘Min, a phallic deity,’ Old Egyptian mnyw ‘herdsman’; Omotic: Wolamo min¯ o ‘warrior,’ Janjero mon¯ o ‘people’; Cushitic: Proto-Cushitic *mn ‘man,’ Burji m´een-a ‘people,’ Somali mun ‘male,’ Hadiyya manna ‘people,’ man-ˇco ‘person,’ Tembaro mana, Iraqw ameni ‘woman’; Berber: Zenaga uman ‘kin,’ Ghadames iman ‘person,’ Zwawa iman, Qabyle iman; Chadic: Proto-Chadic *mn(j) ‘man,’ Proto-WestChadic *mani ‘man, husband,’ Karekare men ‘people,’ Kanakuru minja, Bata m¯ano ‘man,’ Musgu muni ‘woman,’ Logone m¯eni ‘man, person,’ Dari m¯anji ‘person.’ [AA 78, N 292, OS 801, LN 292]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *manu(-s)∼*monu(-s) ‘man’; Indic: Sanskrit m´anu ∼ m´anus . ‘man, person’; Iranian: Avestan *manus ‘man’; Germanic: Gothic manna, Old High German man, English man (pl. men), woman (< wife + man); Slavic: Old Church Slavic moªˇ z˘ ı (< *mon-g-jo-), Russian muˇ z ‘husband.’ [IE 700, N 292]
Uralic: Proto-Uralic (Illich-Svitych) *m¨a´ n´ ce ‘man, person’; Ugric: Vogul mè´ n´ ci ∼ ma´ n´ si (self-name), Ostyak ma´ nt ∼ mo´ nt ∼ më´ s ∼ ma´ s (selfname of one Ostyak clan), Hungarian magyar (self-name); Finnic: Finnish mies, Estonian mees. [U 114, N 292]
Dravidian: Kolami m¯ as ‘man,’ m¯ ac ‘husband,’ m¯aca ‘wife,’ Naikri m¯ as ‘man,’ m¯asal ‘woman,’ Naiki m¯ as ‘husband,’ m¯asa ‘wife,’ Parji ma˜nja ∼ ma˜n˜ na ‘man,’ Gondi manja ‘man, person,’ Konda m¯asi ‘husband,’ Kurux m¯ ˜ et ∼ m¯ et ‘adult man, husband,’ Tamil m¯antar ‘people, men.’ [D 4791; Illich-Svitych’s comparison (N 292) is with D 4774: Tamil man ¯ ‘king, chief, husband,’ etc. The two are probably related.]
Japanese-Ryukyuan: Old Japanese (wo-)mina ‘woman’ (mod. onna). [SY] Ainu meno(-ko) ∼ mene(-ko) ‘woman.’
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian *mVnxV ‘man, male.’ [NSC 116] Yeniseian: Proto-Yeniseian *pix- ‘man.’ [NSC 116]
Indo-Pacific: Bilakura munan ‘man,’ Warenbori mando, Osum aminika ‘woman,’ Ikundun mundu ‘man.’ [FS 92, 93, 106]
Nahali mancho ∼ manco ‘man,’ man-t .a ‘men.’ [NA 89]
Miao-Yao: Proto-Miao-Yao *hmën ‘person,’ Miao hmoÑ∼ hmuÑ (self-name of the Miao), Yao man ∼ myen ∼ mun (self-name of the Yao). [PB 336]
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan: Bella Coola man ‘father,’ Pentlatch m¯an, Squamish man, Blackfoot no-ma ‘husband’; Penutian: Coos ma ‘person,’ Kalapuya menami, Nisenan manai ‘boy,’ Rumsien ama ‘person,’ Hokan: Chumash s-mano ∼ ¬-mano ‘man’; Chibchan-Paezan: Ayoman ayoman ‘husband,’ Warrau moana ‘people’; Andean: Iquito komano ‘father,’ Yahgan imun- ‘father,’ yamana ‘person’; Macro-Tucanoan: Yahuna meni ‘boy,’ maneh˜ e ‘husband,’ Yupua manape‹, Yuyuka yemane, Coto ¨ omuna ‘man,’ Proto-Nambikwara *m¯ ˜ ın ‘father,’ Kaliana m˜ın˜ o ‘man, person,’ imone ‘father-in-law,’ Wanana meno ‘man,’ manino ‘her husband,’ Waikina emeno ‘man’; Equatorial: Guahibo amona ‘husband,’ itsa-mone ‘person,’ Callahuaya mana, Achual aiˇsman ‘man,’ Marawan maki-b-mani ‘boy,’ Chamicuro θamoni ‘my father,’ Manao re-manao ‘person,’ Proto Tupi *men ‘husband,’ Guarani mena, Guajajara man; Macro-Carib: Apiaca moni ‘boy,’ Ocaina moon ‘father,’ Paravithana mei-moen ‘son,’ Miranya itse-meni; Macro-Panoan: Moseten moinˇ ci ‘person,’ Charrua itojman ‘boy,’ Guana emmanabie ‘man’; Macro-Ge: Cayapo m¨an ‘person,’ mi¨an ‘husband,’ Chicriabaaimaman ‘boy,’ mamaÑ ‘father,’ Coroadokuoyman ‘man.’ [AM 154, AMN]
16 MENA ‘to think (about)’
?Khoisan: Sandawe mˇe:na ‘to like.’
Niger-Congo: Fulup -maman ‘know,’ Mambila mini ‘think,’ Malinke mèn ‘understand,’ Bambara mè, Proto-Bantu *m`ani ∼ *m`eni ∼ *m`eny ∼ *m`an ‘know,’ Namshi me˜ ı, Ibo ma, Mandyak me. [NC 28, KS 45, BA IV: 8, 12] Kordofanian: Tumale aiman ‘think.’ [NK 41]
Nilo-Saharan: Songhai ma ‘understand,’ Daza monër ‘know,’ Dinik m´ a`ı, Lotuko mij, Proto-Daju *minaÑe ‘to dream,’ Shatt miniÑ, Ik miin-es ‘to love,’ Teso a-min. [KS 45, NSB, KER]
Afro-Asiatic: Proto-Afro-Asiatic *man ‘think, understand, wish, desire, count’; Semitic: Sokotri mnj ‘wish,’ Tigrinya t¨am¨ann¨aj¨ a, Arabic mnw ‘understand,’ Hebrew m¯an¯ah ‘count,’ Akkadian man¯ u, Aramaic mën¯ a; Cushitic: Somali m¯an ‘mind’; Chadic: Angas man ‘know,’ Boleva mon, Masa min ‘wish.’ [N 281, AB 348]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *men ‘to think’; Anatolian: Hittite me-ma-a-i (< *me-mn-eA-) ‘to say’; Italic: Latin men(s) ‘mind,’ memin¯ ı ‘to remember,’ mon(-¯ere) ‘to remind, warn’; Indic: Sanskrit m´anyat¯ e ‘to think,’ m´anas ‘mind’; Greek mimn¯eskein ‘to remember’; Germanic: Gothic munan ‘to think,’ muns ‘thought’; Baltic: Lithuanian men`u, mi˜nti ‘to remember’; Slavic: Old Church Slavic m˘ınˇeti ‘to count,’ pa-meªt˘ ı ‘mind, memory’; Albanian mund ‘I can’; Armenian i-manam ‘I understand’; Tocharian: Tocharian A mnu ‘thought,’ Tocharian B ma˜nu ‘wish (n.), desire (n.).’ [IE 726, N 281, AB 348]
Uralic: Proto-Uralic (Illich-Svitych) *manV ∼ *monV ‘guess, speak, conjure,’ (R´edei) *mon‰- ‘say’; Yukaghir mon; Samoyed: Yurak maan, Tavgy muno ‘say, command’; Ugric: Hungarian mon(-d) ‘say’; Finnic: Finnish manaa ‘to warn, admonish, curse, bewitch,’ Estonian mana ‘abuse, curse,’ Saami moanˆ a ‘to conjecture,’ Mordvin mu´na ‘bewitch,’ Cheremis mana ‘speak, order.’ [U 53, N 281, AB 348, KR 290]
Dravidian: Tamil man ¯ u ‘prayer, request, word,’ Kannada manuve ‘request,’ Telugu manavi ‘prayer, humble request,’ Irula man .i ‘talk, speak,’ Kota mayn .- ‘talk, scold, abuse.’ [D 4671, 4775, N 281]
?Turkic: Turkish mani ‘folk song,’ Crimean Turkish man¨ a ‘folk song, melody.’ [LN 281]
Basque mun ‘medulla,’ munak (pl.) ‘brains.’ [LC 916]
?Burushaski minäs ‘story, tale.’ [B 506]
?Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Proto-Tibeto-Burman *r-miÑ ‘name,’ Tibetan miÑ,’ Magari armin, Limbu miÑ, Garo miÑ ‘to name,’ Burmese ma´ n ‘to be named,’ Mikir mon ‘mind,’ mun-t‘i ‘to think, understand, guess, assume, appreciate,’ Mid´zu moÑ ‘to summon.’ [ST 83] Cf. also Proto-Tibeto-Burman *maÑ ‘dream,’ often in composition with Proto-Tibeto-Burman *ip ‘sleep,’ asinNung ip-maÑ ‘todream,’ Burmese ip-mak ‘dream,’ hmaÑ(-tak-mi) ‘to be possessed (applied to somnambulism).’ [ST 82]
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan: Shawnee menw ‘prefer, like,’ Laguna am¯ u ‘love,’ Catawba mu÷e ‘wish,’ Thompson iomin- ‘have friendly feelings,’ Okanaganiqam¯en ‘love,’ Kalispel ¯xamenˇ c, Spokane-manën‘wish,’ Nootka m¯ana ‘try, test’; Penutian: LakeMiwok m¯ena ‘think,’ menaw ‘try,’ Bodega Miwok munu ‘be hungry,’ Patwin meina ‘try’; Hokan: Chimariko mi÷inan ‘like,’ Karok ÷¯ımnih ‘love’; Central Amerind: Chichimec men, Mixtec man¯ ı; Chibchan-Paezan: Chimila mojnaya ‘wish,’ Binticua meyuno ‘seek,’ Timucua mani ‘wish,’ Andaqui mi˜na-za ‘I sought,’ Colorado munai ‘love,’ muna-ha ‘wish’; Andean: Araucanian ma˜numn ‘love,’ Aymara muna, Sabella m˜ e- ‘seek,’ Cholona men ‘wish,’ Quechua muna; Equatorial: Otomi manenianda ‘love,’ momene ‘think,’ Baure emeniko ‘love,’ Kamayura emanhau; Macro-Panoan: Lengua min- ‘wish,’ Mataco hemen ‘love,’ Vejoz humin, Mascoy emeni, Caduveo addemane ‘do you love me?’; Macro-Ge: Kamakan m˜ a ‘seek,’ Kr˜eye m˜ a- ‘wish, love,’ Apinage amn˜onm˜on ‘think.’ [AM 270, AMN]
17 MI(N) ‘what?’
Khoisan: =Au.//eˆ ı kama ‘if, when,’ G//abake /kam ‘when,’ Naron kama ‘if, when,’ Nama hamo ‘when,’ maba ‘where,’ Kxoe ma ‘who, which,’ /Nu//en maba ‘where.’ [SAK 384, 757, 758, UOL 71]
Afro-Asiatic: Proto-Afro-Asiatic *m(j) ‘what, who’; Semitic: Akkadian m¯ın ‘what,’ mann ‘who,’ man-ma ‘whoever,’ Geez mi ‘what,’ Amharic mìn ‘what,’ Arabic man ∼ min ‘who,’ mah-m¯ a ‘whatever,’ Aramaic man ‘who,’ Classical Hebrew m¯ ı; Ancient Egyptian m(j) ‘who,’ m ‘what’; Berber: Tuareg ma ‘what,’ mi ‘who,’ Shilha ma(t) ‘who, what,’ m¯ıt ‘who’; Cushitic: Proto-East Cushitic *ma÷ ‘what,’ Saho mi ‘who,’ m¯ a ‘what,’ Somali m´ah .ˆ ¯ a ‘what,’ Oromo m´ ¯ ani ‘what,’ -mi (interrogative particle), Sidamo ma ‘what,’ Darasa ma ‘what,’ m¯ata ‘who’; Omotic: Kaffa amone ‘what,’ Mocha ´amo, Alagwa mi ‘what,’ miya ‘who’; Chadic: Hausa m` ¯ e ∼ m` ¯ ı ‘what,’ Karekare mija, Margi m`ı, Bata mën, Ngala mena, Logone mini ‘who,’ Sokoro -ma (interrogative particle). [AA 77, N 300, UOL 71, LN 300]
Kartvelian: Proto-Kartvelian *ma ∼ *maj ‘what,’ *mi-n ‘who,’ Georgian ma ‘what,’ win ‘who,’ win-me ‘whoever,’ Chan mu ‘what,’ min ‘who,’ Svan maj ‘what.’ [KA 124, 135, N 300, UOL 71]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *mo- (baseofinterrogativeadverbs); Anatolian: Hittite ma-ˇsi-ˇ s ‘how much,’ ma ˘ h ˘ han ‘when,’ Luwian m¯an, Hieroglyphic Hittite mana ‘if, when’; Celtic: Old Irish m´ a ‘if,’ Middle Breton ma ‘what’; Tocharian: Tocharian A m¨ant ‘how.’ [N 300, EU]
Uralic: Proto-Uralic (Illich-Svitych) *mi ‘what,’ (R´edei) *m‰; Yukaghir meneme ‘something’; Samoyed: Tavgy ma ‘what,’ Yenisei Samoyed mii’, Kamassian mo ‘why’; Ugric: Vogul m¨an ‘which, what,’ Hungarian mi ‘what, which’; Finnic: Finnish mi ∼ mi-k¨ a, Saami mi ∼ mˆ a, Cheremis ma ∼ mo,Votyak ma ‘what.’ [U 54, N 300, EU, R 296]
?Dravidian: Kajkadi mid¯ a ‘what,’ Burgendi m¯ı, Tamil (even-)um ‘(who)ever.’ [N 300, UOL 71]
Turkic: Proto-Turkic *mi ‘what,’ Chuvash m˘en ‘what,’ mi´ se ‘how much,’ m˘enle ‘what kind of,’ Old Uighur mu ∼ m¨ u (sentence question enclitic), Turkish mi (sentence question enclitic). [N 300, EU] Mongolian: Mongolian-¯ u(< *wu < *mu)(sentenceinterrogative), Monguor amu ∼ ama ‘what.’ [EU] Tungus: Tungus -ma (indefinitizer), (¯eku-)ma ‘(what)ever.’ [EU] Korean mu˜ ot ‘what,’ mjet ‘how much,’ Old Korean mai ‘why.’ [EU] Japanese-Ryukyuan: Ryukyuan m¯ ı ‘what,’ -mi (sentence interrogative enclitic). [EU]
Ainu mak ∼ makanak ‘what,’ makan ‘what kind.’ [EU]
Chukchi-Kamchatkan: Proto-Chukchi-Kamchatkan *m-ënqV ‘what,’ *mke ‘who,’ *ma÷ ‘when,’ *miÑ ‘which,’ Chukchi mikin ‘who’, mi-k ‘where,’ Kamchadal min ‘which, what sort.’ [EU, CK]
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian *ma (interrogative particle), Chechen mila ‘who,’ Bats me. [KA 135]
Burushaski mèn ‘who,’ amin ‘which,’ mèn (. . . k è) ‘who(ever).’ [L 265]
Yeniseian: Proto-Yeniseian *wi- ∼ *we- ‘what.’ [Y]
Indo-Pacific: Andaman Islands: Biada min ‘thing,’ Bale ming; Central Melanesian: Laumbe mina, Reef (kele)mengge ‘this (thing)’; North New Guinea: Nyaura mëndë ‘thing, what,’ Arapesh mane ‘what’; Southwest New Guinea: Kati man ‘something’; Central New Guinea: Matap mina ‘what.’ [IP 75]
Australian: Proto-Australian *minha ∼ *minya ‘what,’ Dyirbal minya, Pitta-Pittaminha, Gumbaynggirminya, Malyangapaminhaga, Yota-Yota minhe, Diyari minha. [RD 373, 376]
Nahali miÑgay ‘where,’ miyan ‘how much.’ [NA 91]
Austroasiatic: Munda: Kurku amae ‘who,’ Mundari ci-mae ‘why’; MonKhmer: Mon mu ‘what,’ Sakai ma’, ¯amai ‘who,’ Central Sakai m¯o, m¯ a ‘what.’ [NA 91, UOL 71]
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan: Kwakwala m’as ‘what,’ Mandanmana ‘who,’ matswè ‘what,’ Tutelo m˜ a÷tu ‘when’; Penutian: Siuslaw mˆınˇ c, North Sahaptin mèÌn ‘where,’ m¯un ‘when’ miˇ s ‘how, why,’ Nez Perce mana ‘what,’ mine ‘where,’ maua ‘when,’ Patwin mena ‘where,’ Central Sierra Miwok manaχ- ‘who,’ miˇcy ‘do what,’ Northern Sierra Miwok mini ‘where,’ mi-tan ‘when,’ Bodega Miwok manti ‘who,’ San Jose Costanoan mani ‘where,’ San Francisco Costanoan mato ‘who,’ Chitimacha ÷am ‘what,’ Atakapa ma ‘where,’ Choctaw mano ‘when,’ imato ‘where,’ Yuki im ‘who,’ Coast Yuki im ‘where,’ Wappo may ‘who,’ Chontal max, Yucatec ma-ˇ s, Tzeltal maˇc’a, Jacaltec mats(a); Hokan: Yana ÷ambi, East Pomo am, Chumash muski, Cocopa makaya ‘where,’ Diegue˜no maap ‘who,’ ma÷yum ‘when,’ maay ‘where,’ Mohave makaˇ c ‘who,’ maki ‘where,’ Yuma meki, Maricopa mekyenye ‘who,’ miki ‘where,’ Akwa’ala mukat ‘who,’ Karankawa muda ‘where’; Central Amerind: Mazatec hme ‘what’; Chibchan-Paezan: Tarascan ambe, Guamaca mai ‘who, how,’ Kagaba mai ‘who,’ mani ‘where,’ mitsa ‘when,’ mili ‘which,’ Cacaopera ma(-ram) ‘where,’ Matagalpa man, Bribri m˜ık ‘when,’ Sumu manpat, Cabecar m˜an˜ e ‘which,’ Move ama ‘where,’ Chimila miki ‘who,’ muru ‘when,’ me-ma ‘to where,’ me-k ‘from where,’ Guambiana mu ‘who,’ Totoro man ‘how many,’ Paez manˇ c ‘when,’ manka ‘where,’ manzos ‘how often,’ mants ‘how many,’ mau ‘how,’ Cayapa muÑ ∼ maa ‘who,’ Allentiac men, Catio mai ‘where,’ Colorado moa ‘who,’ matuˇ si ‘when’; Andean: Sek xamanmi ‘where,’ Jebero ma÷ ‘what,’ Cahuapana ma-e ‘what,’ impi ‘when,’ Quechua ima ‘what,’ may ‘where’; Equatorial: Guamo miku ‘what,’ Yurucare ama ‘who, which,’ Tinigua mn´e’´ a ‘who,’ Yuruna mane, Paumari -mani- (interrogative), Candoshi maya ‘what,’ Esmeralda muka, Timote mape ‘when,’ Turiwara maape ‘when, where,’ Saliba imakena ‘when,’ Tuyoneri menoka ‘when,’ me-yo ‘where,’ Guajajara mòn ‘who,’ Guayaki ma ‘what, how,’ Guarani mba’e ‘what,’ mamo ‘where,’ Cofan m˜a-ni, Maripu manu(b) ‘in which direction,’ Kandoshi maja ‘what’; Macro-Carib: Witoto mika, Miranya mukoka ‘when,’ mu ‘whose,’ Witoto-Kaim¨ o muka which’; Macro-Panoan:Noctenemetta ‘what,’ mequie ‘when,’ TobaGuazu mi ‘who’; Macro-Ge: Caraho ampo ‘what,’ man˜eno ‘when,’ ampˆ om˜ e ‘which,’ Puri ya-moeni ‘when,’ Aponegicran muena ‘what,’ Cayapo m¯ a ‘where,’ Umutina maˇsika ‘where,’ matuni ‘why,’ Kr˜eye men˜ o ‘who,’ ampˆo-ny ‘why,’ Botocudo mina ‘who.’ [AM: G103, AMN]
18 PAL ‘2’
Niger-Congo: Temne (kë)bari ‘twin,’ Mano pere ‘2,’ Nimbari bala, Daka bara, Proto-Bantu *b`ad´ ı ∼ *b`ıd´ ı ‘2,’ *b´ad` ı ‘side.’ [NC 48, KS 76, UOL 92, BA III: 21, 22, 43] Nilo-Saharan: Nubian bar(-si) ‘twin,’ Merarit w´ırre ‘2,’ Kunama b´aar` e ‘2,’ ib¯ a ‘twin,’ Maba mbar ‘2,’ Mesalit mbarr´ a, Tama warri, Baka br¯ue, Ilit ball-ame. [ES 119, KS 76, UOL 92, NSB]
Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: Kafa bar¯ a ‘other,’ Mocha baro, Dime bal; Cushitic: Saho baray ‘2nd,’ Oromo b´ıra; Chadic: Proto-Central Chadic *(kV-)bwVr ‘2.’ [VB]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *pol ‘half, side’; Indic: Sanskrit (ka-)palam ‘half’; Albanian pal¨ e ‘side, part, pair’; Slavic: Old Church Slavic pol˘ u ‘side, half,’ Russian pol ‘half.’ [IE 802, 986, IS 356]
Uralic: Proto-Uralic (Illich-Svitych) *p¨ al¨ a ∼ pole ‘half,’ (R´edei) *p¨al¨ a ‘half, side’; Samoyed: Yurak Samoyed peele ‘half,’ Selkup pèle, Kamassian pjeel ‘half, side’; Ugric: Hungarian f´ el ∼ fele ‘half, (one) side (of two),’ Vogul p¨ a¨ al ‘side, half’; Finnic: Saami bælle ∼ bæle ‘side, half, one of a pair,’ Mordvin pel ‘side,’ pele ‘half,’ Votyak pal ‘side, half.’ [U 67, IS 356, R 362]
Dravidian: Proto-Dravidian *p¯ al ‘part, portion,’ Tamil p¯ al ‘part, portion, share,’ Malayalam p¯ al ‘part,’ Kannada p¯ al ‘division, part,’ Tulu p¯alu‹ ‘share, portion, part,’ Telugu p¯alu ‘share, portion,’ Parji p¯ela ‘portion.’ [D 4097, IS 356]
Indo-Pacific: Andaman Islands: Biada (ik-)p¯a¯ur(-da) ‘2,’ Kede (´ır-)p¯ol, Chariar (n´er-)p´ol, Juwoi (r´o-)p¯a¯ ur; New Guinea: Ndani bere, Sauweri pere; Tasmanian: Southeastern boula ∼ bura, Southern pooalih. [T 331, VB]
Australian: Proto-Australian*bula‘2,’ Proto-Pama-Nyungan*(nyuN)palV ‘(you) two,’ *pula ‘they two,’ Ngiyambaa bul¯ a ‘one of a pair.’ [RD 356, BB 7, 31]
Austroasiatic: Proto-Austroasiatic *÷(m)bar ‘2’; Munda: Santali bar, Kharia (u-)bar, (am-)bar ‘you two,’ Juang ambar, Remo ÷mb¯ ar ‘2’;
Mon-Khmer: Khmu’ b¯ar, Bahnar ÷bar, Jeh bal, Old Mon ÷bar, Old Khmer ber, Sakai hmbar, Khasi ¯ar, Riang (k-)¯ar, Palaung ¯ ar ∼ a, par ‘you two,’Temiar bër(-nar) ‘2,’ Central Nicobarese ˜ a. [PB 135, UOL 94]
Miao-Yao: Proto-Miao-Yao *(a)war ∼ *(ë)wër ‘2,’ Proto-Miao *way (< *war), Proto-Yao *(w)i. [PB 415] Daic: Mak wa ‘twin,’ Ong Be von ‘2.’ [PB 415]
Austronesian: Proto-Austronesian *kë(m)bal ∼ *(Ñ)kë(m)bar ‘twin,’ Javanese k˘ebar ‘doubled,’ k˘embar ‘twin,’ Motu hè-kapa ‘twins,’ Roro akabani ‘8’ (= 4-pair). [AN 76, WW 227, PB 415]
Amerind: Penutian: Wintun palo(-l) ‘2,’ Wappo p’ala ‘twins,’ Atakapa happalst ‘2,’ Huave apool ‘snap in two’; Chibchan-Paezan: Chiripo bor ‘2,’ Xinca bial ∼ piar, Bribri bul ∼ bur, Cacaopera burru, Sanuma -palo (repetitive), polakapi ‘2,’ Cayapo palju, Colorado palu, Atacame˜no poya; Andean: Quechua pula ‘both,’ Aymara paja ‘2,’ Yamana sa-pai ‘we-2’ (sa= ‘thou’), Yahgan (i-)pai ‘(we) two’; Macro-Tucanoan: Tuyuka pealo ‘2,’ Wanana pilia, Desana peru, Yupua apara, Proto-Nambikwara *p’¯al(-in), Catuquina upaua, Hubde mbeere, Ticuna peia; Macro-Ge: Caraho pa‘we-2-inc.’ [AM 262, AMN]
19 PAR ‘to fly’
Niger-Congo: Proto-West Sudanic *pil ‘to fly,’ Serer fol, Same pere, Ewe fl` o ‘to jump,’ Yoruba f` o ‘fly,’ Grebo fri, Igbo f´ e, Ijo fin. [KS 32]
Nilo-Saharan: Dinka par ‘to fly,’ Nubian fire ‘to flutter,’ Teso a-poror ‘to fly,’ Teda bur-ci ‘to jump,’ Songhai firi ‘to fly,’ Ik por-òn, Maasai -biri, Majang pir. [KS 32, NSD 27, UOL 193, KER, HF 12]
Afro-Asiatic: Omotic: Proto-Omotic *pyaRR ‘to fly’; Ancient Egyptian p÷ ‘to fly, flee’; Semitic: Aramaic parr ‘flee,’ Arabic farra, South Arabian ferfir ‘wing,’ Amharic barrara ‘fly away, flee’; Cushitic: Beja f¯ ar ‘jump, hop,’ Boyo firy ‘flee’; Berber: Shilha firri to fly,’ Ait Izdeg afru; Chadic: Ankwa p’¯ ar ‘jump,’ Angas piar ‘jump, leap,’ Buduma fër ‘fly, jump.’ [CS 366, AA 32, IS 346]
Kartvelian: Proto-Kartvelian *p’er ‘tofly,’ Georgian p’er, Svan p’er; ProtoKartvelian *prin ‘to fly,’ Georgian prin ∼ pren, Mingrelian purin, Chan purtin. [KA 152, 190, IS 346]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *(s)per ‘to fly’; Indic: Sanskrit parn .´ a ‘feather’; Iranian: Avestan parëna ‘feather, wing’; Slavic: Old Church Slavic peroª ‘to fly,’ pero ‘feather.’ [WP II: 21, IE 850, IS 346, EU]
Uralic: Yukaghir perie ‘feathers,’ perienze ‘feathered,’ perie´ n ‘have wings’; Proto-Uralic *parV ‘to fly’; Ugric: Ostyak pòr ∼ pur ‘to fly.’ [IS 346]
Dravidian: Proto-Dravidian *parV ∼ *par ¯ V ‘to fly, run, jump,’ Tamil par ¯ a ‘to fly, hover, flutter, move with celerity,’ Malayalam par ¯ akka ‘to fly, flee,’ par ¯ a ‘bird,’ par ¯ u ‘flight,’ Kota parn- ‘to fly,’ Toda p¯ or ¯ , Kannada p¯ ar ¯ ‘to leap up, run, jump, fly,’ Kodagu p¯ ar ‘to fly, leap,’ Telugu par ¯ acu ‘to run away, flee,’ par ¯ ika ‘a kind of bird,’ Kui p¯ask ‘to fly,’ Kuwi pr¯ad . ‘to run away.’ [D 4020, NSD 27, IS 346]
?Tungus: Evenki h¯ ar ‘to soar.’ [IS 346]
Gilyak parpar ‘to hover, fly about.’ [EU]
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian *pì ¯ rV ‘to fly,’ Proto-West Caucasian *përë, Ubyx përë, Abkhaz pìr; Proto-Lezghian *pVr-, Udi pur, Archi parx, Proto-Avar-Andi*par-pV-; Proto-Caucasian*p˘ a ¯ rVp˘ a ¯  lV ‘butterfly, moth,’ Proto-West Caucasian *parëpalë ‘moth,’ Proto-Lezghian *pa(r)pal- ‘butterfly.’ [C 162, 167; KA 152, 190]
Basque pimpirina ‘butterfly’ (< *pir-pir-).
Sino-Tibetan: Proto-Sino-Tibetan *phur ∼ *bhur ‘to fly’; Archaic Chinese *pjwër ‘to fly’; Tibeto-Burman: Proto-Tibeto-Burman *pur ∼ *pir ‘to fly,’ Tibetan ’phur-ba, Central Tibetan ’phir-ba, Nung ëphr ‘to shake,’ khoÑ-phr ‘moth,’ Garo bil ‘to fly,’ Dimasa bir, ?Bahing byer, ?Abor-Miri ber. [ST 181, 398, NSC 152] ?
Indo-Pacific: Baham paru-baru ‘bird,’ Kondo boro, Kare purupuru, Bunabun piropir ‘butterfly.’ [FS 8, 135]
Nahali aphir ‘to fly.’ [NA 59; according to Kuiper this is a borrowing from Kurku]
Austroasiatic: Munda: Proto-Munda *apir ‘to fly’; Mon-Khmer: Mon pau, Khmer par, Bahnar par, Jeh pal, Vietnamese bay. [PB 482]
Daic: Tai: Proto-Tai *÷bin ‘to fly,’ Dioi bin; Sek bìl ∼ ÷bil; Kam-Sui: ProtoKam-Sui *pwen ∼ *bwen, Kam pen, Sui win ∼ vyen, Mak vin; Lakkia pon; Ong-Be vin. [PB 394]
Austronesian: Proto-Formosan *(maq)baR ‘to fly,’ *(mi-)pëRpëR. [PB 394]
20 POKO ‘arm’
?Khoisan: Hadza upukwa ‘leg, hind leg, foot,’ ufukwani ‘thigh.’ [BD 247, 249]
Niger-Congo: Dagomba boγo ‘arm,’ Gbaya baxa, Ewe abo, Zande bo, Proto-Bantu *b´ok` o, Sotho le-boko ‘arm,’ ?Wolof, Gbaya buko ‘10,’ ?Mossi piga, ?Tiv puwë, ?Grebo pu, ?Vere bo. [KS 4, NC 44, UOL 194] Nilo-Saharan: Bagirmi boko ‘arm,’ Baka baka, Berta bu´ a, Didinga iba. [KS 4, CN 3, UOL 194]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *bh¯aghu(s) ‘arm, forearm, elbow’; Indic: Sanskrit b¯ah´uh . ‘arm’; Iranian: Avestan b¯azus; Armenian bazuk ‘forearm’ (a loan from Iranian languages, according to Pokorny); Tocharian: Tocharian A poke ‘arm,’ Tocharian B pauke; Greek pakhus ‘elbow, forearm’; Germanic: Old English b¯ og ‘arm, shoulder, bough,’ English bough. [IE 108, UOL 194]
Dravidian: Kurux p¯akn¯ a ‘to take up into one’s arms,’ Malto p´ake ‘to take in the lap.’ [D 4050]
Mongolian: Proto-Mongolian *baγu- ‘upper arm.’ [AD 20]
Burushaski: Hunza bäγu ‘double armful,’ Werchikwar bäγ’o ‘taking or embracing in two arms.’ [B 65, W 38]
Yeniseian: Proto-Yeniseian *boq ‘hand, palm.’ [Y 28 ] Sino-Tibetan: Tibeto-Burman: Proto-Tibeto-Burman *pow ∼ *bow ‘arm’ (cf. English bough for a similar phonetic development). [TB 442] ?
Indo-Pacific: Andaman Islands: Bea pag ‘claw,’ Bale poag; Tasmanian p¨ogar´ena ‘shoulder’; New Britain: Sulka paaga ‘fingernail’; West New Guinea: Baham pag; North New Guinea: Nafri faxa; East New Guinea: Amara foka; Unclassified New Guinea: Tate faha ‘claw.’ [IP 858]
Nahali boko ∼ bokko ‘hand.’ [NA 74] ?Austroasiatic: Semang p¯ak ‘hand,’ ta-pak ‘to slap.’ [NA 63] Daic: Tai: Proto-Tai *÷ba ‘shoulder’; Sek va; Kam-Sui: Mak ha; Ong-Be bea; Li: Proto-Li *va; Laqua muë ‘shoulder’ (< *mb(γ)a). [PB 378]
Austronesian: Proto-Austronesian *(÷a)-baγa‘ ‘shoulder,’ Proto-Formosan *qa-baγa-(a)n, Proto-Oceanic *(qa-)paγa, Mukawa kabara, Paiwa kavara. [AN 19, WW 187, PB 378]
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan: Mandan s¯upaxe ‘arm,’ Dakota xupahu, Biloxi s˜opka ‘fin’; Penutian: Natchez ilbak ‘hand,’ Choctaw ibbok ‘hand, arm,’ Chitimacha p¯akta ‘armpit,’ Totonac paqni÷ ‘arm,’ Huastec pah¯ab ‘hand,’ Quiche sipax ‘give’; Hokan: Yana dac-buku ‘arm,’ Salinan puku, Chumash pu, Cochimi ginyakpak, Mohave hivipuk, Havasupai vuy-eboka, Subtiabapaxpu; Chibchan-Paezan: Shirianapoko∼boko,Cuitlatec poxja, Jutiapa paxa, Chiquimulilla pux ‘hand,’ Xinca pahal ‘arm,’ Paya bakapu ‘give,’ Cayapa pexpex ‘arm,’ Colorado pexpe, Mura apixi, Chimu p¯ık ‘give,’ Puruha pux; Andean: Culli pui ‘hand,’ Simacu bixi, Allentiac pux ‘give,’ Auca po ‘hand,’; Macro-Tucanoan: Canamari p¨oghy ‘hand,’ Papury mbake, Tiquie (m)bake ‘arm,’ Kaliana kiˇjapakuba, Catauxim ˇ cu-bak˜ o ‘hand,’ Proto-Nambikwara *pik’; Equatorial: Chamacoco puk˜ e ‘arm,’ Turaha pogo, Camsa buakua-ha, Coche buakwaˇ ce ‘hand, forearm,’ Ramarama i-p˜ aÑua ‘arm,’ Karif bugalaga ‘armpit,’ Omagua poa ‘hand,’ Proto-Tupi *po, Yuracare popo, Kamaru bo ‘arm,’ Aruashi bu ‘hand’; Macro-Carib: Muinane ònò-bwìkì ‘arm,’ Mocoaapo, Ocainaoo÷po ‘hand,’ Tamanaco (j-)apa(-ri) ‘arm,’ Coeruna (ko-)ipai; Macro-Panoan: Chulupi pakat ‘hand,’ Suhin pakat-ai, Sanapana in-apheik, Charrua (is-)bax ‘arm,’ Toba apige, Chacobo baˇ s . ‘elbow, forearm,’ Proto-Tacanan *bai ‘arm’; Macro-Ge: Botocudo po ‘hand,’ Proto-Ge *pa ‘arm,’ Kaingan pe, Chiquito (i-)pa, Guato (ma-)po. [AM 7, MT 46, AMN]
21 PUTI ‘vulva’
Niger-Congo: Mande: Malinke butu ‘vulva,’ Guro buri, Bobo-Fing bido, Bisa bid; Bantu: Luganda -butò ‘womb,’ Kunda -budu, Swazi -Ñgo-bòti, Ki-sikongo -buti. [HJ, M] Nilo-Saharan: Songhai: Gao buti ‘vulva,’ Djerma bute; Koman: Ganza pit, Koma bitt. [NS 145, NSD 59]
Afro-Asiatic: Proto-Afro-Asiatic *pwt ‘hole, anus, vulva’; Omotic: Ganjule pote ‘vagina’; Semitic: Hebrew pot ‘vulva’ (“secret parts” in the King James Version, Isaiah 3:17); Cushitic: Somali f´uto ‘anus,’ Darasa f¯ıdo ‘genitals,’ Oromo fuˇ gi ‘vulva’; Chadic: Jegu paate, ‘vulva,’ paato ‘penis,’ Angas fut ‘hole.’ [CS 381, IS 340, WM 64]
Kartvelian: Proto-Kartvelian *put’ ‘hole,’ Svan put’u. [IS 340]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *puto ‘cunnus’; Indic: Sanskrit p˘ ¯ utau ‘buttocks’; Italic: Vulgar Latin *putta ‘girl,’ Old French pute (mod. putain) ‘whore,’ Proven¸cal puta(-na), Spanish puta; Germanic: Old Icelandic fu∂ ‘cunnus,’ Middle High German vut ‘vulva,’ Swiss German fotz ∼fotza, Swedish fitta, fod ‘rear end’ (dialectal). [WP II: 21, IE 848, SM 1013]
Uralic: Proto-Uralic(Illich-Svitych) *putV ‘rectum,’ (R´edei) *put‰‘rectum, colon’; Ugric: Ostyak p˘uti ‘rectum’; Finnic: Saami butt˘eg˘ e. [U 91, IS 340, R 410]
Dravidian: Brahui pund . ¯ u ‘anus, buttocks,’ p¯ os ‘vulva,’ Tamil pun .t .ai ‘vulva,’ p¯ ur ¯ u∼p¯ır ¯ u ‘anus,’ poccu ‘vulva, anus,’ Malayalam p¯ ur ¯ u ‘buttocks, vulva,’ Kannada pucci ‘vulva,’ Telugu p¯ ud .a ‘anus,’ Tulu p¯ ut .i ‘vulva,’ Kodagu pur¨ ı, Kota pid ., Toda p¨ıd .y ‘penis,’ Kuwi putki. [D 4273, 4379, 4476, NSD 59]
Mongolian: Middle Mongolian h¨ut¨u-g¨un ‘vulva.’ Japanese-Ryukyuan: Old Japanese phòto ‘vulva’ (mod. hoto). [SY]
Eskimo-Aleut: Proto-Eskimo-Aleut *putu ‘hole.’ [EA]
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian *p˘ut’i ‘genitals (mostly female),’ Proto-Nax *but’ ‘vulva,’ Proto-Avar-Andi *but’a, Proto-Lak *put’i ‘tube,’ ProtoDargi *put’i ‘anus,’ Proto-Lezghian *¯pot’ ‘penis.’ [C 168]
Basque poto-rro ‘pubis, vulva.’ ?
Australian: Luridya pud˘ a ‘vulva.’ [VB]
?Austronesian: Proto-Austronesian *betik ‘vagina,’ *puki ‘vulva’ (< *puti ?; cf. East Rukai pati ‘vulva’), Ami puki, Tsou buki ‘penis.’ [AN 121, WW 231, 233, PB 417]
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan: Delaware saputti ‘anus,’ Mohegan sebud, Wiyot beˇ s ‘vagina,’ Upper Chehalis -pˇ s ‘anus’; Penutian: Chinook puˇ c, Yaudanchi poto ‘penis,’ San Juan Bautista lapus ‘anus,’ Southern Sierra Miwok p¯otol; Hokan: Washo (d-)¯ıbis ‘vagina,’ Karok v¯ ıθ, Diegue˜no hap¯ ıˇ catt, Tequistlatec (la-)beˇsu÷; Chibchan-Paezan: Move butie, Paya pèta-is-tapcca ‘anus,’ Chimu pot, Ayoman busi ‘vagina,’ Allentiac poru; Andean: Quechua upiti ‘anus,’ Yamana p¯uta ‘hole,’ Aymara phuthu; Macro-Tucanoan: Gamella sebu ‘vulva,’ Uaiana mbitikope ‘anus,’ Uas¨ona hibitikope; Equatorial: Guahibopetu‘vagina,’ Guayaberosil-fhuta‘vulva,’ Kandoshiapˇcir(-iˇc), Toyeri apuit ‘vagina,’ Wachipairiped, Piapokoafhutani ‘buttocks,’ Tariana p¯ati-niawa ‘vagina,’ Warakena p¯ede ‘clitoris,’ Caranga piˇ ce ‘vulva,’ Uro piˇsi, (cf. also such Equatorial forms as Siusi tsu-pote ‘vagina,’ Campa sibiˇ ci ‘vulva,’ ˇsibiˇ ci ‘penis,’ Uro ˇsapsi ‘genital organ’); Macro-Carib: Jaricuna poita ‘vagina,’ Pimenteira p¨utze-maung, Waiwai boˇ ci ‘pubic hair,’ Motilon pirri ‘penis’; Macro-Panoan: Cavine˜ nabusu-kani ‘anus,’ Tagnani opet, Tiatinagua besi ‘penis,’ Panobo buˇsi,’ Lule pesu; Macro-Ge: Mekran putote. [AM 263, EQ 121, AMN]
22 TEKU ‘leg, foot’
Niger-Congo: Konyagi -tak ‘heel,’ Gurmana -duge, Jarawa -dudug-ul, Kikuyu -togigo. [HJ II] Nilo-Saharan: Proto-Kuliak *tak’a ‘foot, shoe,’ takw ‘step on, tread on,’ So tèg ‘foot’; Saharan: Daza dige ’leg,’ Kanuri dëÑgäl ‘wade,’ Kanembu d˜ o . ∼ duu ‘leg,’ Berti taki ‘thigh,’ Karda d`ıg` ı ‘foot.’ [VB, NSB]
Afro-Asiatic: Omotic:Male toki ‘leg,’ Koyratoke, Kachama tuke, Bambeshi tugè ‘foot,’ Nao tego ‘to go,’ Dime tiÑgo; Cushitic: Proto-East Cushitic *t¯ak-, Somalitag- ‘togo,’ Dahalod ¯ aka‘a‘foot’; Chadic: Proto-West-Chadic *tak- ‘to walk with somebody, accompany,’ Muzgum t´ugu ‘foot,’ Gollango ta° ‘to go.’ [VB, LN 255, OS 166]
Dravidian: Proto-Central Dravidian *t¯ak ‘to walk,’ Parji t¯ak, Pengo t¯ aÑ(g), Kui t¯aka. [D 3151, LN 255] Cf. also Telugu d .ekka ‘hoof,’ Naikri d .ekka, Konda d .eka, Kuwi dekka. [D 2970]
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian *t’H˘ a ¯ lq’wV ‘part of the leg,’ Proto-East Caucasian *t’wehwV ‘foot,’ Proto-Dido *t’ìq’ wV ‘sole of the foot,’ ProtoLezghian *t’elq’wI ‘shin, ankle.’ [C 196]
Na-Dene: Proto-Eyak-Athabaskan *t’` ¯ ax ∼ *t’` ¯ ah ‘foot.’ [DC]
Indo-Pacific: Tasmanian tok˘ana ‘foot’; Timor-Alor: Abui tuku ‘leg, foot’; Halmahera:Ternate tagi ‘towalk’; Central Melanesian: Savotetegha ‘foot, lower leg’; Tasmanian: Northeast tage(-na) ‘to walk,’ North taka(-ri), Southeast taga(-ra); North New Guinea: Arso taka ‘foot’; Southwest New Guinea: Marind tagu ‘to walk,’ Telefol tek ‘to go’; South New Guinea: Mombum it¨ogh ‘foot,’ Bara togoi ‘leg’; Central New Guinea: Ekari togo ‘to walk,’ Matap tag ‘hip’; East New Guinea: Jegasa Sarau tegi ‘foot.’ [IP 80, T 458]
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan: Mandan dok’a ‘leg,’ Hidatsa idiki; Penutian: Siuslaw ts¯ıkw ‘foot,’ North Sahaptin tëχp ‘with the foot,’ Nez Perce teχ´ e÷p ‘foot,’ Wintu t‘ek- ‘move,’ Mixe tek ‘foot,’ Huastec ts’ehet ‘upper leg’; Hokan: Jicaque tek ‘leg’; Chibchan-Paezan: Borunca tek ∼ dek ‘walk,’ Move dikeko, Atanque dukakana ‘leg,’ Baudo taˇ c .i-kini ‘foot’; Andean: Simacu tixea ‘foot,’ Yahgan kadek ‘walk’; Macro-Tucanoan: Tiquie do(γ) ‘leg,’ Wanana dexso ‘thigh’; Equatorial: Tinigua diki ‘foot,’ Piaroa tsih˜ep˜ e, Wapishanaˇcikep ‘walk,’ Arawak adikki-hi ‘footprint,’ Miguri guateke ‘walk,’ Guayabero tuk ‘foot,’ Yurucare tekte ‘leg,’ Guahibo taxu ‘foot’; Macro-Carib: Bora take ‘leg,’ Andoke (ka-)dekkhe ‘foot’; Macro-Panoan: Cavine˜ na edaˇci, Panobo taeg, Mayoruna taku, Amahuaca taku; Macro-Ge: Oti etage ‘leg,’ Cotoxo t¨axkatse, Camican tako-emaÑ ‘walk,’ Proto-Ge *tè ‘leg.’ [AM 165, AMN]
23 TIK ‘finger; one’
Niger-Congo: West Atlantic: Fulup sik ∼ sex ‘finger,’ Nalu te; NorthCentral Niger-Congo: Gur dike ‘1’; South-Central Niger-Congo: Gwa dogbo, Fon ¢`okp´ a Ewe ¢`ek´ a; Bantu: Tonga tiho ‘finger,’ Chopi tsiho, Ki-Bira zika, Ba-Kiokwa zigu. [KS 55, UOL 91, HJ II: 295] Nilo-Saharan: Fur tòk ‘1,’ Maba tëk, Dendje doko ‘ten,’ Nera ¢òkk-u ‘1,’ Merarit tok ‘ten,’ Dinka tok ‘1,’ Berta ¢´uk´oni, ?Mangbetu t’è, Kwama seek-o, Bari to, Jur tok, Twampa ¢` e÷, Komo ¢´ e. [NS 103, CN 72, ES 83, KS 55, UOL 91, NSB]
Afro-Asiatic: Proto-Afro-Asiatic *tak ‘1’; Semitic: Peripheral West Gurage tëgu (ëmmat) ‘only 1’; Cushitic: Oromo toko ‘1,’ takku ‘palm (of hand),’ Yaaku tegei ‘hand,’ Saho ti ‘1,’ Bilin tu, Tsamai d¯okko; Berber: Nefusa tukod . ‘finger’; Chadic: Hausa (d .aya) tak ‘only 1,’ Gisiga t¯ekoy ‘1,’ Gidder te-teka, Logone tku ‘first.’ [AAD 3: 10]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *deik ‘to show, point,’ *dekm‹ ‘10’; Italic: Latin dig(-itus) ‘finger,’ dic(-¯are) ‘to say,’ decem ‘10’; Germanic: Proto-Germanic *taihw¯ o ‘toe,’ Old English tahe ‘toe,’ English toe, Old High German zˆeha ‘toe, finger.’ [IE 188, 191, EU]
Uralic: Votyak odik ‘1,’ Zyrian ˜otik. [U 138, EU]
Turkic: Chuvash tek ‘only, just,’ Uighur tek ‘only, merely,’ Chagatai tek ‘only, single,’ Turkish tek ‘only,’ teken ‘one by one.’ [EU] Korean (t)tayki ‘1, thing,’ teki ‘1, guy, thing,’ Old Korean t¯ek ‘10.’ [EU] Japanese-Ryukyuan: Japanese te ‘hand.’ [UOL 195] Ainu tek ∼ teke ‘hand,’ atiki ‘five.’ [UOL 195, EU] Gilyak ˇrak ‘once.’ [EU]
Chukchi-Kamchatkan: Kamchadal itygin ‘foot, paw.’ [EU]
Eskimo-Aleut: Proto-Eskimo-Aleut *q(ì)tìk ‘middle finger’; Eskimo: Kuskokwim tik(-iq) ‘index finger,’ Greenlandic tik(-iq) ‘index finger,’ tikkuagpaa ‘he points to it’; Aleut: Attu tik(-laq) ‘middle finger,’ atgu ‘finger,’ taγataq ‘1,’ Atka atakan. [EU, EA 121]
Yeniseian: Proto-Yeniseian *tok ‘finger.’ [VT]
Sino-Tibetan: Archaic Chinese *ti@ek ‘single, 1’; Tibeto-Burman: Proto-Tibeto-Burman *tyik ‘1,’ Rai tik(-pu), Tibetan (g-)t´sig. [ST 94]
Na-Dene: Haida (s-)tla ‘with the fingers’; Tlingit tl’eeq ‘finger,’ tlek ‘1’; Eyak tikhi; Athabaskan: Sarsi tlik’-(aza), Kutchin (˜ı-)¬ag, Hupa ¬a÷, Navajo ¬` a÷. [ND]
Indo-Pacific: Tasmanian: Southern motook ‘forefinger,’ Southeastern togue ‘hand’; West New Guinea: Proto-Karonan *dik ‘1’; Southwest New Guinea: Boven Mbian tek ‘fingernail,’ Digul tuk. [IP 37, SWNG 39, SNG 42, UOL 195]
Austroasiatic: Proto-Austroasiatic *(k-)tig ‘arm, hand’; Munda: Kharia ti÷; Mon-Khmer: Riang ti÷, Wa tai÷, Khmer t .ai, Vietnamese tay, ProtoAslian *tik ∼ *tiÑ. [PB 467, UOL 195]
Miao-Yao: Proto-Miao-Yao*nto÷ ‘finger’; Proto-Yao*do÷; Proto-Miao*ntaì ‘point with the finger.’ [PB 356]
Daic: Proto-Li *dliaÑ ‘finger,’ Northern Li tleaÑ ∼ theÑ, Loi thèÑ ∼ ´ciaÑ. [PB 356]
?Austronesian: Proto-Austronesian *(tu-)diÑ ‘point with the finger.’ [AN 140, WW 156, PB 356, UOL 195]
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan: Nootka takwa ‘only,’ Bella Coola ts’i÷xw ‘five,’ Kalispel ts’oqw‘point with the finger,’ Kwakwala sokw‘five,’ Nitinat -tsoq- ‘in hand,’ Cherokee sakwe ‘1,’ Acoma ÷iskaw, Pawnee uska, Mohawk tsi÷er ‘finger,’ Hidatsa ˇsaki, Winnebago s¯ak, Quapaw ˇcak, Biloxi iˇ caki ‘fingers,’ Yuchi saki ‘hand’; Penutian: Southern Sierra Miwok tsik’a÷ ‘index finger,’ Wintun tiq-eles ‘10,’ Nisenan tok- ‘hand,’ Mixe to÷k ∼ tuk’ ‘1,’ Sayula tu÷k, Tzeltal tukal ‘alone,’ Quiche tik’ex ‘carry in the hand,’ Hokan: Proto-Hokan *dìk’i ‘finger,’ Karok t¯ık ‘finger, hand,’ Achumawi (wa-)t´ uˇ ci ‘finger,’ Washo tsek, Yana -ts’gi- ‘alone,’ East Pomo b¯ı’yats¯ukai ‘finger,’ Arraarra teeh’k ‘hand,’ Pehtsik tiki-vash, Akwa’ala aˇsitdek ‘1’; Central Amerind: Nahua ts¨ıikia÷a, Pima Bajo ˇ c¯ıˇ c, Tarahumara sika ‘hand,’ Mazatec ˇcika÷˜ a ‘alone,’ Mangue tike ‘1,’ Cuicatec diˇ ci ‘10’; Chibchan-Paezan: Chibcha ytiquyn ‘finger,’ aˇcik ‘by ones,’ Borunca e‘tsik ‘1,’ Guatuso dooki, Shiriana ˜ıthak ‘hand,’ Ulua tinka-mak ‘finger,’ Paez tèè ˇ c ‘1,’ Allentiac tukum ‘10,’ Warrau hisaka ‘finger, 1’; Andean: Cahuapana itekla ‘finger, hand,’ Jebero it¨okla, Alakaluf t¯akso ‘1,’ Quechua s¯ok; Macro-Tucanoan: Siona tekua, Siona teg-li ‘5,’ Canichana eu-tixle ‘finger,’ Ticuna suku ‘hand,’ Yupua di(x)ka ‘arm,’ Uas¨ona dikaga; Equatorial: Upano tsikitik ‘1,’ Aguaruna tikiˇ j, Murato tsiˇ ci ‘hand,’ Uru ts¯ ı ‘1,’ Chipaya zek, Itene taka, Guamo dixi ‘finger,’ Katembri tika ‘toe,’ Yuracare teˇ ce ‘thumb’; Macro-Carib: Kukura tikua ‘finger,’ Accawai tigina ‘1,’ Yagua teki; Imihita meux-tsekoa ‘finger,’ Trio tinki ‘1,’ Ocaina dikabu ‘arm’; Macro-Panoan: Mataco otejji ‘1,’ Tagnani etegueno ‘finger,’ Sensi (nawiˇs)-tikoe ‘1 (finger)’ Cavine˜ na eme-toko ‘hand,’ Moseten tak ‘10’; Macro-Ge: Botocudo (po-)ˇcik ‘1 (finger),’ ˇgik ‘alone,’ Proto-Ge *(pì-)ts i ‘1 (finger).’ [AM 110, MT 1, DL 56, AMN]
24 TIKA ‘earth’
?Niger-Congo: Proto-Bantu *t`ak` a ‘earth, mud, ground, soil,’ Swahili taka ‘dirt, refuse.’ [BA IV: 87] ?Nilo-Saharan: Berta adok’o(Ñ) ∼ atok’o(Ñ) ‘mud.’ [Bender 1989]
Kartvelian: Proto-Kartvelian *tiqa ∼ *diqa ‘soil, clay,’ Georgian tixa ‘clay, dirt’ (< Old Georgian tiqa), Mingrelian dixa ∼ dexa ‘soil, earth,’ Chan (n)dixa ‘soil.’ [KA 94, N 69]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European *dhghem ‘earth’; Anatolian: Hittite te-e-kan; Indic: Sanskrit ks .am; Iranian: Avestan z¯ aå ; Albanian dhe; Italic: Latin humus; Celtic: Old Irish d¯ u ‘place’; Baltic: Latvian zeme ‘earth’; Slavic: Old Church Slavic zemlja; Tocharian: Tocharian A tkam . . [IE 414, N 69 ]
Dravidian: Tamil tukal . ‘dust,’ Telugu d¯ugar ¯ a ‘dust, dirt,’ Kolami t¯ uk ‘dust, earth, clay,’ Naikri tuk ‘earth, clay,’ Parji t¯ukud ‘earth, clay, soil,’ Gadba t¯ ukur . ‘earth, clay.’ [D 3283]
Japanese-Ryukyuan: Old Japanese tuk¨ ı ‘mud,’ tuki ‘land’ (mod. tsuki ∼ tsuˇ ci). [SY]
Burushaski t¯ık ∼ tik ‘earth, ground.’ [B 351] Yeniseian:
Proto-Yeniseian *tëq- ‘clay, dirt,’ Ket tag-ar ‘clay,’ Kot thag-ar ‘dirt.’ [SC 76]
Sino-Tibetan: Lushei diak ‘mud,’ Sho dhek ∼ dek’ ‘earth.’ [IST 221]
Na-Dene: Haida tlig ∼ tlga ∼ klik ‘earth, ground’ (cf. tik ‘finger’ above for a similar shift of t > tl before i); Tlingit (tlit-)tik ∼ tliak-¯ u ∼ klatk‘earth’; Eyak (Yakutat) (tza)tlkh ‘earth.’ [ND]
Nahali tsikal ∼ sikal ‘earth.’ [NA 67; probably a borrowing of Kurku tsikal ‘mud,’ according to Kuiper.]
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan: Bella Bella tëq’ wum ‘dirty,’ Nootka ts’ak’umts‘earth,’ Kwakwaladzëqwa ‘mud,’ Squamisht´ıqw‘muddy,’ Lower Fraser s-t’iqël, Seneca -tki- ‘dirty,’ Yuchi s’ak’òõ ‘mud,’ Hidatsa ih .atsaki ‘dirty,’ Acoma h´ a÷ats’i ‘land’; Penutian: Tsimshian ma÷tks ‘dirty,’ Pokonchi tsikot, Mamˇcokˇ s ‘earth,’ Mixe më÷ëts ‘mud,’ Sayula mo÷ts, Ixilˇsok’ol, Quiche ˇsoq’ox ‘muddy’; Hokan: Shasta ts’ik ‘mud,’ Achomawi teqade ‘earth,’ Diegue˜ no taketak ‘dirty’; Central Amerind: Cora tsi÷itsa, Hopi t¯ ¨ ıtsk¨ıa ‘earth,’ Chatina tsuuh ‘dirty,’ Proto-Central Otomi *ts’o, Chinantec suh ‘dirt’; Chibchan-Paezan: Xinca tuxa ‘mud,’ Binticua tikan, Bribri iˇcuk ‘earth,’ Rama taki, Cabecar du-ˇceka ‘mud,’ Guambiana ˇcig, Alllentiac toko, Cayapa tu ‘earth’; Andean: Quechua ˇc’iˇ ci ‘dirty,’ Pehuelche atek ‘earth,’ Tehuelche takhs ‘dirty’; Macro-Tucanoan: Papury tixsa, Yupua t¯ıxta ‘earth,’ Tucano dixta, S¨ar¨ a sixta, Canichana ni-ˇcixiˇci, Nadobo togn ‘mud’; Equatorial: Tinigua tokwana ‘earth,’ Caranga tsuxtsi ‘dirty,’ Chamicuro tsixta ‘earth,’ Cocoma tuguka; Macro-Carib: Yabarana aˇsikipe ‘dirty,’ Witoto sagope ‘mud’; Macro-Panoan: Toba-Guazu toko ‘dirty,’ Lengua atits, Chulupi t¯ıˇ s ‘wet ground,’ Tacana aˇ ci ‘dirty’; MacroGe: Chiquito tuki-s, Bororo txu, Chavante tika ‘earth,’ Apinage tugu ‘dirty,’ Cayapo tuk. [AMN]
25 TSAKU ‘leg, foot’
?Niger-Congo: Bantu: Proto-Bantu *ts`ak` u ‘calf of the leg.’ [BA 79] Nilo-Saharan: East Sudanic: Jur ˇcok ‘foot,’ Zilmamu ˇsowa ‘foot,’ Nera ˇ sokna ‘foot, claw,’ Proto-Dinka-Nuer *tsok ‘foot’; Gumuz: Proto-Gumuz *tsogwa, Proto-Koman *ˇsok, Komo ˇsawkh, Twampa ˇ s` og, Kwama sòÑk’. [VB, NSB]
Afro-Asiatic: Cushitic: Beja sikwina ‘foot,’ Quara sukan¯ a; Semitic: Hebrew ˇ soq ‘leg,’ Arabic s¯aq; Berber: Shilha (ta-)zux(-t) ‘foot’; Chadic: ProtoWest Chadic *sAkA ‘leg,’ Bolewa ˇseke ‘foot,’ Fali sika. [CS 265, AA 34, OS 292]
Indo-European: Indic: Sanskrit sak(-thi) ‘thigh’; Iranian: Avestan hax(-ti); Celtic: Welsh heg(-ol) ‘leg, shank.’ [IE 930]
Uralic: Yukaghir tsoγ(-ul) ‘foot, leg’; Ugric: Ostyak s˘ag(-ë´ nt) ∼ soh(-ët) ∼ ´sog(-ë´ s) ‘back side of the leg from the heel to the bend of the knee (of a human being); back hoof (of a horse); Finnic: Saami ˇcæwˇga ∼ ˇcæwˇ ge ‘hock of reindeer or other quadruped.’ [U 92 ]
Chukchi-Kamchatkan: Kamchadal tsk(-ana) ∼ tski ‘foot, leg, paw.’ [Swadesh 1962]
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian *ˇc’V ¯ [l]k’wV ‘foot, hoof,’ Proto-Avar-Andi *¯ ˇ c’ik’wa ‘foot.’ [C 75, DC]
Burushaski: Hunzaˇ säk ‘arm, forearm (of a human being); thigh, upper part of the leg (of an animal),’ Werchikwar ˇ s .äk. [B 320, W 215]
?Sino-Tibetan: Ancient Chinese *tsiwok ‘foot,’ Cantonese ts .uk.
Indo-Pacific: AndamanIslands: Onge tsige ‘leg,’ Biada tsag, Puchikwar tsok, Juwoi ˇcok; Central New Guinea: Mikaru saga ‘foot,’ Grand Valley Dani (ne-)sok ‘(my) foot’; East New Guinea: Korona sogo ‘foot,’ Sikube suku, Mafulu soge, Kambisa suga. [IP 80, T 458]
Austroasiatic: Munda: Kharia dzuÑ ‘foot’; Mon-Khmer: Mon ts¨ oÑ ‘foot, leg,’ Khmer dzöÑ ‘leg, foot,’ Temiar dzoÑ∼dzukn, Mah Meri dzogn, Shompen ˇcuk ‘foot.’ [VB]
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan: Proto-Algic *-s¯ o÷k-ani ∼ -ˇs¯ o÷k-ani ‘hip,’ Kutenai saq’ ‘leg,’ Quileute t-ts’oqw ‘foot,’ Squamish -ˇcq‘ ‘hip, side,’ Okanagan s-ts’¯oqan ‘leg,’ Yuchi go-ˇcuko ‘thigh’; Penutian: Nass as¯ax ‘foot,’ Siuslaw ts¯ıkw, Klamath ˇc’¯og ‘leg,’ bo-sak-l’ ‘thigh,’ Lake Miwok ˇ c´ uki ‘hip,’ Wappo ˇcoke ‘hip bone,’ Zuni sakwi ‘leg,’ Atakapa ÷aˇska ‘foot,’ Huave ts¯ak ‘leg,’ Mam ˇcog, Tzotzil ˇcakil ‘hip’; Hokan: Achomawi ˇsak¯ o ‘leg,’ Northern Pomo ˇsaku, Eastern Pomo ˇ s¯ ako, Kashaya ˇsahku, Yana dz¯uk’uwalla ‘hip,’ Mohave tsakas; Central Amerind: Mazatec n-tsaku ‘his foot,’ Popoloca ts¯agu ‘leg,’ Mixtec tsaha ‘hip,’ Ixcatec tsaku ‘leg,’ Chocho tsagua; Chibchan-Paezan: Tarascan tsika-hta-kua ‘thigh,’ Murire sokuagete, Sabanero suaguet ‘leg,’ Binticua ˇj´ukue, Andaqui sogua-para ‘foot,’ Itonama uj-sahua-no ‘leg,’ Jirajira a-sagan-ipipo, Timucua secah; Andean: Proto-Quechuan *ˇ c .aki ‘foot,’ Yahgan ˇcikan ‘leg,’ Alacaluf ˇcekur ‘foot’; Macro-Tucanoan: S¨ar¨ a tsagalo ‘thigh,’ Buhugana sakalo, Yuri sokehry ‘hip’; Equatorial: Campa no-tsaki, Piaroa tsiha ‘thigh,’ Mocochi ˇ cuko ‘leg,’ Otomi ˇcuˇcuga ‘thigh,’ Chapacura ˇciki-ˇ ci ‘foot’; Macro-Carib: Trio sako ‘leg,’ Mocoa saku, Ocaina¨ ı÷ˇ z´ o´oga ‘foot’; Macro-Panoan: TobaGuazu ˇcaga˜ ni ‘thigh,’ Cavine˜ na etsaka ‘leg,’ Sapiboca eˇcuxu ‘thigh’; Macro-Ge: Botocudo ˇ z¨ ak-merum ‘tibia,’ Masacara ˇs¨ u¨oku ‘leg,’ Kaingan (in)-tso ‘(my) leg.’ [AM 165, AK 113, CP 114, AIW, PP 133, AMN]
26 TSUMA ‘hair’
Khoisan: !Kung ˇcum ‘shell,’ ˇs’um ‘skin,’ Eastern =Hua ˇc’¯ u ∼ ts’¯ u ∼ dts’¯ u ‘skin’; G//abake ˇ c¯ a ∼ ˇ co ‘skin’; /Xam t˜ u ‘shell.’ [SAK 597, 807]
Nilo-Saharan: Nyangiya sim-at ‘hair,’ Nandi sum. [KER 445]
Afro-Asiatic: Omotic:Proto-Omotic *somm- ‘pubichair’; Cushitic: Sidamo ˇ somb-, Proto-Southern Cushitic *se÷em- ‘hair’; Old Egyptian zm‰; Semitic: Proto-Semitic *ˇsm˙ g ‘fine hair shed by a camel’; Chadic: Hausa suma ‘growth of hair.’ [OL 47, CCE]
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian *ts’§ w˘eme ‘eyebrow,’ Proto-Lezghian *ts’wem, Proto-Nax *ts’a-ts’÷Vm. [C 70 ]
Basque zam-ar(r) ‘lock of wool, shock of hair.’ [SC 12] Yeniseian: Proto-Yeniseian *tsëÑe ‘hair.’ [SC 12]
Sino-Tibetan: Proto-Sino-Tibetan *tsh¯am ‘hair’; Archaic Chinese *sam ∼ *s .am ‘hair, feather’; Tibeto-Burman: Proto-Tibeto-Burman *tsam ‘hair,’ Lepcha ˘atsom, Tibetan (÷ag-)tshom ‘beard of the chin’ (= [mouth]-hair), Kanauri tsam ‘wool, fleece,’ (mik-)tsam ‘eyebrow’ (= [eye]-hair), Magari t´ sham ‘hair, wool,’ Burmese tsham, Lushei sam ‘hair (of the head),’ Dhimal t´sam ‘hide, bark,’ Garo mik sam ‘eyebrow,’ Nung ëÑsam ‘hide.’ [ST 73, 191, UOL 194, SS 23]
Miao-Yao: Proto-Miao-Yao *´sj¯am ∼ *sj¯am ‘beard, moustache.’ [PB 307]
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan: Pawnee oˇsu ‘hair,’ Dakotaˇs˜ u ‘feather,’ Woccon summe ‘hair’; Penutian: North Sahaptin ˇ sëmtai ‘pubic hair,’ Nez Perce simtey, Kekchi tsutsum ‘feather,’ ismal ‘hair,’ Mam tsamal, Quiche isumal; Hokan: Proto-Hokan *ˆ chemi ‘fur,’ North Pomo tsime ‘hair,’ Kashaya sime ‘body hair, fur,’ Northeast Pomo ˇ cheme ‘body hair,’ Mohave sama ‘root,’ Cocopa iˇsma ‘hair,’ Tlappanec ts˜ uÑ ‘hair, root’; Central Amerind: Tubatulabal tsomol ‘hair, head’; Chibchan-Paezan: Matagalpa susum ‘beard,’ Xinca susi ‘beard’; Andean: Tsoneka ˇcomki ‘pubic hair,’ Quechua sunk‘a ‘beard’; Equatorial: Caranga ˇcuma ‘hair,’ Quitemo ˇcumiˇ ci, Aguaruna susu ‘beard,’ Candoshi sosi. [AM 136, EQ 54, UOL 194, DL 4, AMN]
27 ÷AQ’WA ‘water’
Khoisan: Northern: !o !kung k˜a˜ u ‘to rain,’ !kung k”¯ a ‘drink’; Central: Naron k”¯ a ‘drink’; Southern: /kam-ka !ke k”w˜ a ∼ k”w˜ e ‘drink,’ k´ ˜ a˜ u ‘to rain,’ //ng !ke k”˜ a ∼ k”˜ e˜ ı ‘drink,’ k˜a˜ u ‘to rain,’ Batwa k”˜ a ∼ k”˜ e ‘drink,’ /auni k”¯ aa ‘drink,’ Masarwa k”˜ a ‘drink,’ /nu //en k”˜ a ‘drink.’ [KE 261]
Nilo-Saharan: Fur kò´ ı ‘rain’; East Sudanic: Nyimang kwe ‘water,’ So kwè÷, Ik ˇcuè; Central Sudanic: Mangbetu ´eguo; Berta kòÌ` ı ‘rain, cloud’; Koman: Kwama uuku ‘water,’ Anej agu-d ‘cloud.’ [NSB, KER]
Afro-Asiatic: Proto-Afro-Asiatic (Illich-Svitych) *‘q(w) ‘water,’ (Ehret) *ak’w-; Omotic: Proto-North Omotic *ak’-, She k’ai ‘wet,’ Janjero ak(k)a ‘water,’ Kaffa aˇc¯ o, Mocha ¯ aˇc’o, Gofa haˇ cˇc¯ a, Shinasha aˇc’ˇc’o, Badditu wats’¯ e; Cushitic: Proto-Cushitic (Ehret) *-k’w- ‘to be wet,’ (Illich-Svitych) *‘qw ‘water,’ Agaw aqw, Bilin ‘aqw, Xamir aqw¯ a ‘drops of water,’ Damot agwo ‘water,’ Proto-East Cushitic (Ehret) *k’oy- ‘wet,’ Hadiyya wo’o ‘water,’ Tambaro waha, Sidamo waho, Iraqw ¯aha ‘drink.’ [N 139, EU, AM 87, CE 348]
Indo-European: Proto-Indo-European (Pokorny) *akw¯ a- ‘water,’ (Puhvel) *egw-, (Bomhard) *ek’w-; Anatolian: Hittite eku-, Luwian aku-, Palaic ahô u- ‘drink’; Italic: Latin aqua ‘water’; Germanic: Gothic ahwa ‘river’; Tocharian: Tocharian A yok- ‘drink.’ [IE 23]
Uralic: Proto-Uralic (R´edei) *yoka ‘river.’ [R 99–100]
Japanese aka ‘bilge water.’ [JP 100] Ainu wakka ‘water,’ ku ‘drink.’ [JP 100]
Caucasian: Proto-Caucasian *-V ¯ qV ‘suck,’ Proto-Lezghian *÷oχwa ‘drink,’ Lezghian χwa-l, Agul uχas, Proto-Lezghian *÷o¯ qwa- ‘rain,’ Lezghian ¯ qwa-z, Rutul hu∏was, Tsakhur jo∏wi; Proto-Nax *-aq- ‘suck(le),’ Chechen -aq‘suck’; Proto-Dargi *-uq- ‘suck(le).’ [C 3, 16 ]
?Burushaski häγ-um ‘wet.’
Sino-Tibetan: Proto-Sino-Tibetan *Ku ‘fluid, spill,’ Newari khwo ‘river,’ Khaling ku ‘water,’ Kachin khu. [NSC 43]
Indo-Pacific: Awyu okho ‘water, river,’ Syiagha okho ‘water,’ Yareba ogo, Yonggom oq, Ninggirum ok. [FS 96, 134]
Australian: Proto-Australian *gugu ‘water.’ [AC]
Amerind: Almosan-Keresiouan: Proto-Central Algonquian *akw¯ a ‘from water,’ Kutenai -qw ‘in water,’ Quileute kw¯aya’ ‘water,’ Snohomish qwa÷, Caddo koko; Penutian: Nass akj-s, Takelma ugw ‘drink,’ Wintun wak’ai ‘creek,’ Zuni k’a ‘water,’ Atakapa ak, Yuki uk’, Tetontepec uu÷k ‘drink,’ Yucatec uk’ ‘be thirsty’; Hokan: Chimariko aqa ‘water,’ Kashaya ÷ahqha ‘water,’ q’o ‘drink,’ Seri ÷ax ‘water,’ Diegueno ÷ax¯ a, Quinigua kwa, Tonkawa ÷¯ax, Tequistlatec l-axa÷; Central Amerind: Proto-Chinantec *gwa ‘stream, river’; Chibchan-Paezan: Shiriana koa ‘drink,’ Chimila uk-, Binticua agu, Allentiac aka ‘water’; Andean: Iquito aqua, Quechua yaku, Yamana aka ‘lake’; Macro-Tucanoan: Auake ok˜ oa ‘water, river,’ Cubeo oko ‘water,’ Tucano axko; Equatorial: Amniape ¨ak¨ u, Quitemo ako, Uaraicu uaka ‘wash,’ Terena oko ‘rain,’ Chipaya axw ‘wash’; Macro-Carib: Yagua xa ‘water,’ Witoto joko ‘wash,’ Macushi u-wuku ‘my drink,’ Waiwai woku ‘drink,’ Taulipang ai’ku ‘wet’; Macro-Panoan: Lule uk ‘drink,’ Mayoruna uaka ‘water,’ Culino yaku ‘water,’ waka ‘river,’ Huarayo hakua ‘wash’; Macro-Ge: Koraveka ako ‘drink,’ Fulnio waka ‘lake,’ Kamakan kwa ‘drink,’ Chavante k¯ o ‘water,’ Aponegicran waiko ‘drink.’ [AM 87, AMN]

Аббревиатуры


Источники

Библиографические источники:


Компаративистика : Глоттогенез | Глоттохронология | Классификация языков | Макрокомпаративистика | Школы удаленных сравнений | Протоязыки | Книги по компаративистике | Авторские наблюдения | Пралексиконы

На правах рекламы (см. условия):    


© «Сайт Игоря Гаршина», 2002, 2005. Пишите письма (Письмо И.Гаршину).
Страница обновлена 20.03.2019
Я.Метрика: просмотры, визиты и хиты сегодня